Negative and Positive Parenting
At immediate posttest, Webster–Stratton, Reid, and Hammond (2004) reported that mother’s negative parenting was decreased significantly, compared with controls for all five experimental groups. At immediate posttest, mothers’ positive parenting and fathers’ negative parenting were significantly changed in the expected direction in all but two (child training only [or CT] and child training plus teacher training [or CT+TT]) of the experimental groups. The significant results were maintained at the 1-year follow-up.
Child Conduct Problems at Home
At immediate posttest, all five treatment conditions, compared with the control condition, showed significant improvement in negative behaviors with mothers, while only the three groups with parent training (parent training only [or PT], parent training plus teacher training [or PT+TT], and parent training plus child training plus child training or [PT+TT+CT]) showed improvement in negative behaviors with fathers. These results were maintained at the 1-year follow-up.
Child Behavior at School and Social Competence With Peers
At immediate posttest, all five treatment conditions, compared with the control condition, showed significant improvement in behavior at school. The Teacher Assessment of School Behavior scores indicated significant clinical improvements relative to controls. Similar results were found for classroom observation of children’s negative behavior. At the 1-year posttest, all but one of these improvements were maintained—the school behavior of children in the PT+TT+CT group deteriorated from posttest to the follow-up.
Child Social Competence
Significant improvements in social competence with peers were found in two (CT and PT+TT+CT) groups, compared with the control group, with a trend to a significant improvement in social competence in the CT+TT group.
Teacher Classroom Management
At the immediate posttest, the three teacher training conditions and the child-only training showed significant treatment effects compared with controls. Only the PT group failed to show significant effects.
Clinical Improvements in Conduct
At immediate posttest, 84.6 percent of the children in the PT+TT condition improved on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) intensity score completed by the mothers, compared with 40 percent of controls. In the CT+TT condition, 81.3 percent of children improved on this measure. On the Dyadic Parent Child Interaction System—Revised (DPICS—R) measure of child negative behavior, three treatment conditions showed clinically significant improvements: PT+TT (72 percent), PT+TT (85 percent), and CT (82 percent). At 1-year follow-up, ECBI scores indicated maintenance of improvements for the PT+TT condition, and DPICS—R scores increased for all groups that included child training. Classroom observation indicated that clinically significant aggressive behavior continued to improve from posttest to 1 year in all five treatment conditions, although ratings by the new teacher showed slight decreases except for the CT group.
Miller Brotman and colleagues (2005) reported that negative parenting practices decreased in the intervention group, compared with the control group based on both parent ratings and observer ratings. No differences in positive parenting practices were found between treatment and control parents.
Stimulation for Learning
Stimulation for learning improved significantly in the treatment families but deteriorated in the control families.
Child Social Competence
Engaging behavior improved significantly in the treatment children, but deteriorated among control children.
Improvement in Teaching Style
Webster–Stratton, Reid, and Stoolmiller (2008) reported that the Teacher Coder Impressions measure found that intervention teachers were significantly less critical, less inconsistent/permissive, and warmer and more affectionate and placed more emphasis on social emotional teaching than control teachers at posttest. Head Start teachers in the intervention group improved significantly in effective discipline compared with those in the control group. On the Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies measure, intervention teachers were significantly less critical than control teachers at posttest. Also, the more critical the teacher at baseline, the greater the improvement.
There was a significantly greater improvement in school readiness measured by the Coder Observation of Classroom Adaptation—Revised in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Also, individual differences were significant at the teacher level, and children with the poorest readiness scores at baseline improved the most.
There was no main effect for conduct problems as measured by the Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies scales. However, intervention children with higher levels of conduct problems at baseline improved significantly at posttest relative to their counterparts in the control group.
Intervention parents were rated as marginally more involved in school activities than control parents.
There was a large improvement in classroom atmosphere in the intervention group relative to the control group.
Child Problem Solving
High-risk children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in problem solving than those in the control group.