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Practice Profile

Adult Reentry Programs

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Promising - One Meta-Analysis Crime & Delinquency - Multiple crime/offense types

Practice Description

Practice Goals/Target Population
Adult Reentry Programs aid individuals with the transition from confinement to their home communities. The overarching goal is to reduce recidivism among adult participants.  

Practice Components
Adult reentry programs will generally initiate treatment (i.e., substance abuse, life skills, education, cognitive–behavioral, sex/violent offender treatment) in a prison setting and provide additional program components in the community following an individual’s release from prison or jail. There are diverse types of reentry programs for adults, including therapeutic communities, reentry courts, employment and work release programs, substance abuse treatment programs, housing/homelessness programs, programs targeting sex or violent offenders, and programs targeting females.

Treatment can take many forms, including individual treatment, group treatment, client and family treatment, case management, and a mixed format. Some adult reentry programs use a program curriculum, and others do not. Similarly, some of the programs are voluntary, and others are mandated by the court. The location of service delivery also varies and can include a prison or jail setting; community-based correction facility; or a community-based, non-correctional facility (i.e., halfway houses, community-based service providers, or treatment centers that are not located within a jail or prison).

Practice Theory
The practice targets a number of barriers to reintegration that individuals experience following their release from incarceration, including behavioral and cognitive skills, substance abuse problems, mental health issues, and obstacles related to lack of employment and education. For example, a lower level of educational attainment, an absence of a steady history of employment, and a lack of vocational skills can hinder efforts to find a job and make a decent wage. Providing educational programming and vocational training to adults while they are in prison can help them overcome these challenges by fostering the skills needed to find employment (Davis et al. 2014).

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

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Promising - One Meta-Analysis Crime & Delinquency - Multiple crime/offense types
Looking at 53 eligible studies and calculating 58 effect sizes, Ndrecka (2014) found a statistically significant, medium effect size (r=.06) on recidivism. This means there were statistically significant reductions in recidivism for individuals who participated in adult reentry programs, compared with individuals who did not participate. Put another way, the findings indicate that the reentry program group would have a recidivism rate of 47 percent while the comparison group would have a 53 percent recidivism rate.
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Meta-Analysis Methodology

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Meta-Analysis Snapshot
 Literature Coverage DatesNumber of StudiesNumber of Study Participants
Meta-Analysis 11980 - 201353289125

Meta-Analysis 1
Ndrecka (2014) examined the effectiveness of adult reentry programs through a meta-analysis of 53 experimental and quasi-experimental evaluations, that resulted in the calculation of 58 effect sizes. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they 1) evaluated a reentry program defined as a correctional program that focuses on the transition of individuals from prison into the community, including treatment or services that have been initiated while the individual is in custody and a follow-up component after the individual is released; 2) had at least one measure of criminal behavior as an outcome measure; 3) utilized an experimental or quasi-experimental design; 4) provided enough information to calculate an effect size; 5) were published after 1980; and 6) included only adults in its sample.

A thorough search of the literature was conducted using eight different methods, which led to the inclusion of the 53 eligible studies.  First, a keyword search was conducted using a variety of databases. Second, the bibliographies of four articles that describe reentry program research were examined to find additional studies. Third, websites for government agencies, such as the National Institute of Justice, were searched for publications and reports on reentry programs. Fourth, the National Reentry Resource Center was searched, which includes reports of reentry program evaluations. Fifth, the websites for each state’s department of correction and office of juvenile corrections were visited and examined to discover evaluation reports. Sixth, the websites for certain research agencies were examined to find unpublished studies. Seventh, the Ancestry method was used to examine the bibliographies of each study that was collected for inclusion in the analysis. Lastly, a keyword search was utilized with Google and Google Scholar to find other published and unpublished studies. The final 53 eligible studies used in the meta-analysis that resulted in 58 effect sizes and had a combined sample size of 289,125 participants and publication dates that spanned from 1980 to 2013.

Of the included studies, 27.6 percent provided mixed/combination services in their programming, 20 percent employed a therapeutic community model, and 17.2 percent offered transition employment programming. About 35 percent of the programs involved the combination of a prison and a community-based correctional facility as the location of treatment. Additionally, the majority (53.4 percent) of programs included in the meta-analysis lasted 3 months or longer, and about 47 percent had voluntary participation. Regarding treatment targets, about a third of the programs targeted employment and vocational training, and about 29 percent targeted substance abuse. Lastly, about 43 percent of programs applied a mixed treatment format, and about 40 percent applied a case-management treatment format. Of the samples in the included studies, 72.4 percent employed a mixed-race population, 12.1 percent employed a mostly black population, 3.4 percent employed a mostly white population, and 12.1 percent lacked this data.  

The source of recidivism data was collected via self-report, official records, or other sources (not named). The form of effect size selected was the correlation coefficient (r) and while both a random effects and fixed effects model was reported for the overall effect sizes, the more conservative random effects model was reported for all of the findings.
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Cost

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There is no cost information available for this practice.
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Other Information

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The findings of Ndrecka’s (2014) study showed that reentry initiatives should begin while the individual is in a correctional facility and then continue after an individual’s release into the community. Additionally, reentry programs that targeted high-risk offenders were more effective in reducing recidivism, and programs that lacked treatment fidelity showed no significant effect in reducing recidivism. Lastly, effective programs were 13 weeks or longer.
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Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)

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These sources were used in the development of the practice profile:

Meta-Analysis 1
Ndrecka, Mirlinda. 2014. “The Impact of Reentry Programs on Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis.PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 2014. 
http://cech.uc.edu/content/dam/cech/programs/criminaljustice/Docs/Dissertations/Ndreckam.pdf
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Additional References

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These sources were used in the development of the practice profile:

Davis, Lois M., Jennifer L. Steele, Robert Bozick, Malcolm V. Williams, Susan Turner, Jeremy N.V. Miles, Jessica Saunders, and Paul S. Steinberg. 2014. How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go From Here? Washington, D.C.: RAND Corporation.

http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR564.html
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Related Programs

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Following are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated programs that are related to this practice:

Forever Free Promising - One study
The first comprehensive, in-prison, residential substance abuse treatment program designed for incarcerated women. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group reported fewer arrests during parole, less drug use and were employed more at follow-up than the comparison group.

Boston (Massachusetts) Reentry Initiative (BRI) Promising - One study
An interagency public safety initiative to help incarcerated violent adult offenders transition back to their neighborhoods following release from jail through mentoring, social service assistance, and vocational development. The program is rated Promising. The study found participants, relative to the control group, had significantly lower failure rates, arrests for violent crime, or arrests for any crime. The differences between the two groups narrowed somewhat over time.

Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS) Promising - One study
A job training program for probation officers to help them apply the risk-need-responsivity model with probationers to reduce recidivism. The program is rated Promising. The results of the study revealed significant changes in the officer population; but non-significant differences regarding offenders’ subsequent recidivism.

Amity In-Prison Therapeutic Community Promising - One study
Provides intensive treatment to male inmates with substance abuse problems during the last 9 to 12 months of their prison term. The volunteer participants must reside in a dedicated program housing unit during treatment. The program is rated Promising. Overall, participants had lower levels of reincarceration rates compared to the control groups.

Delaware KEY/Crest Substance Abuse Programs Promising - One study
A prison-based therapeutic community for offenders with a history of substance abuse and a residential work release center that allows offenders to continue their treatment as they transition to the community. The program is rated Promising. Program completers and aftercare recipients were less likely to be arrested or use drugs. Also, the treatment group did better at follow-up in remaining arrest and drug-free.

Preventing Parolee Crime Program (PPCP) Promising - One study
A multidimensional, parole-based reintegration program that aims to reduce parolees’ crime and reincarceration by providing them with services that can facilitate a successful reintegration into society following release from prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants who met treatment goals had the lowest recidivism rates. In general, the longer the parolees stayed in a program, the less likely they were to return to prison.

Modified Therapeutic Community for Offenders with Mental Illness and Chemical Abuse (MICA) Disorders Promising - One study
An adaptation of the therapeutic community models for use with offenders who have both drug abuse problems and mental health disorders. This modified version uses a more flexible, more personalized, and less intense program that targets reductions in substance use and recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the treatment group were less likely to abuse substances; and if they did start, it was later than the control group.

New Jersey Community Resource Centers Promising - One study
Nonresidential multiservice centers that facilitate parolees’ successful reintegration back into the community. The program is rated Promising. Participants had lower reconviction rates than parolees who received no community supervision, did not participate in community programs, or participated in a Halfway Back program. Participants also had significantly lower rates than parolees who either did not receive community programming or any community supervision.

New Jersey Halfway Back Program Promising - One study
A highly structured program that serves as an alternative to incarceration for technical parole violators or as a special condition of parole release. Halfway Back programs provide parolees with an environment that is halfway between prison and parole release. The program is rated Promising. Participants lasted considerably longer to a rearrest and had the lowest rate of reincarceration compared to the other groups (day reporting centers, parolees with no community programming and max-outs).

Community and Law Enforcement Resources Together (ComALERT) Promising - One study
A reentry program in Brooklyn, N.Y., that provides substance abuse treatment, employment, and housing services for parolees transitioning from prison back into the community. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to be rearrested, reconvicted, or reincarcerated than the matched control group. They had a higher employment rate, but there was no statistical difference in reincarceration by parole violation, co-residence and contact with children, or drug and alcohol use.

Auglaize County (Ohio) Transition (ACT) Program Promising - One study
The program works to reduce recidivism of jail inmates once they reenter the community, in part by linking inmates to various resources. The program is rated Promising. The program was successful in reducing recidivism rates among participants.

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) No Effects - One study
A collaborative Federal effort that concentrated on improving criminal justice, employment, education, health, and housing outcomes of adult and juvenile offenders upon their release from incarceration. The program is rated No Effects. The overall results of the evaluation did not show significant differences between participants and non–participants using measures of housing, substance use, and criminal behavior/recidivism for adult male, female offenders and juvenile male offenders.

Project Greenlight No Effects - One study
An institution-based transitional services demonstration program that was designed to be a short, intensive intervention that could serve a greater number of offenders with reentry services at a lower cost. The program is rated No Effects. Participants who had the most extensive prerelease programming actually had worse outcomes when compared with those who had some prerelease programming through the existing Transitional Services Program and a control group that received no transitional service

Transitional Case Management No Effects - One study
A case management intervention that emphasized the client’s strengths, previous accomplishments, and provided expanded case management services during an inmate’s transition from incarceration to the community. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation did not find statistically significant differences in treatment, other services received, or behavioral outcomes (including any drug use, any arrests, and HIV risk behaviors (i.e. sex without a condom)) for the treatment or control group.

Minnesota Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment Program Promising - One study
The program offers treatment, therapy, and transitional services to convicted male sex offenders in prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants recidivated less and more slowly than untreated inmates. Treatment also impacted recidivism for violent and general offenses; but was not found to be more, or less, effective for certain types of sex offenders.

Thinking for a Change Promising - One study
A cognitive–behavioral curriculum developed by the National Institute of Corrections that concentrates on changing the criminogenic thinking of offenders. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of offenders who recidivated between the treatment group and the control group. The control group was 57 percent more likely to be arrested during the follow-up period.

InnerChange Freedom Initiative (Minnesota) Promising - One study
A voluntary, faith-based prisoner reentry program that attempts to prepare inmates for reintegration into the community, employment, family, and other significant relationships through educational, values-based programming. The program is rated Promising. Participants were rearrested, reconvicted, and reincarcerated less than the comparison group. There was no statistically significant impact on revocations for a technical violation between the groups.

Multimodal Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Program No Effects - One study
A community-based prisoner reentry program that provides substance abuse treatment to medium-to high-risk offenders placed on 24-month community correctional supervision. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program had no significant effect on program participants on rearrest, reincarceration, and relapse.

West Midlands (England) High-Crime-Causing Users (HCCU) Promising - One study
An intensive community-based partnership between police and treatment providers in West Midlands that provided enhanced delivery and coordinated efforts and resources to high-risk offenders to reduce their offending behavior. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the average number of arrests for participants.

Minnesota’s Affordable Homes Program No Effects - One study
A prison work crew program designed to increase the availability of affordable low-income housing while training inmates in construction-industry-specific occupational skills. The program is rated No Effects. The program had some significant effect on program participants’ likelihood of gaining employment in the construction field following release from prison. However, there were no significant effects on gaining employment in other fields, rearrests, reconvictions, and reincarceration.

Random Drug Testing with Immediate Results and Immediate Sanctions Promising - One study
The experiment was conducted to examine the efficacy of alternative methods of instant drug testing, and determine how the different methods affected rates of relapse and recidivism of parolees with substance abuse issues. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group (that had random drug testing with immediate results and immediate sanctions) had lower rates of relapse and recidivism; however, they were less likely to be admitted to treatment; and recidivism effects were short-lived.

Washington State’s Residential Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative Promising - One study
This program is an alternative to incarceration for felony offenders with substance abuse problems. In lieu of confinement, offenders must successfully complete a residential, chemical-dependency treatment program in the community. The program is rated Promising. Residential DOSA was shown to significantly reduce overall recidivism rates compared with prison-based DOSA.

Offender Reentry Community Safety Program Promising - One study
Formerly called the Dangerous Mentally Ill Offender Program, this is a reentry-planning and service program aimed at reducing recidivism for dangerously mentally ill offenders in Washington State. The program is rated Promising. Program participants had significantly lower violent felony and overall felony recidivism rates compared with the matched control group 4 years following release from prison.

Mental Health Services Continuum Program (Calif.) Promising - One study
The program targets parolees with mental health problems and provides services to enhance their level of individual functioning in the community. The overall goal is to reduce recidivism of mentally ill parolees and improve public safety. The program is rated Promising. Parolees who participated in the program and received a pre-release assessment or who had one or more contacts with the Parole Outpatient Clinic showed a significant reduction in the odds of being returned to custody.

Community-based Residential Programs (Ohio) Promising - One study
The programs include halfway houses and community-based correctional facilities in Ohio. The goal of the community-based correctional programs is to reduce recidivism by offering a wide range of programming related to chemical dependency, education, employment, and family relationships. The program is rated Promising. Offenders in community-based residential programs were less likely to recidivate (measured by new arrests and re-incarcerations) than those not in the programs.

Prison Industry Enhancement Certificate Program (PIECP) Promising - One study
The program engages state prison inmates in private sector jobs (which pay minimum wage or higher), in an effort to increase post-release employment and reduce recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Compared with inmates who worked in traditional prison industries and participated in other activities such as education and drug treatment, program participants had significantly higher post-release employment and lower recidivism rates.

Moving On (Minnesota) Promising - One study
This is a curriculum-based, gender-responsive intervention created to address the different cognitive–behavioral needs of incarcerated women. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce recidivism as measured by rearrests and reconvictions, but did not have a significant impact on reincarcerations for a new offense and technical violation revocations.

Minnesota Comprehensive Offender Reentry Plan (MCORP) Promising - One study
This was a case management program implemented in seven different correctional institutions across Minnesota. The program connected caseworkers in prisons with supervision agents in the communities to which participants return upon release from prison. The program is rated Promising. It significantly reduced recidivism as measured by rearrest, reconviction, technical violation revocation, and reincarceration for any reason, but had no significant impact on new offense reincarceration.

Allegheny County (Penn.) Jail-Based Reentry Case Management Program No Effects - One study
This was a mandatory jail reentry program with an overall goal of reducing recidivism and improving inmates’ transition into the community. The program connected inmates to Reentry Probation Officers to help with pre-release reentry planning and continued supervision following release. The program was rated No Effects. No statistically significant differences were found between program participants and the comparison group on probation violations and probability of rearrest.

Allegheny County (Penn.) Jail-Based Reentry Specialist Program Effective - One study
This was a two-phase reentry program with an overall goal of reducing recidivism and improving inmates’ transition into the community. Phase 1 provided inmates with in-jail programming and services to prepare them for release. Phase 2 provided inmates with up to 12 months of supportive services in the community. The program was rated Effective. Program participants had a 10 percent chance of rearrest, compared with a 34 percent chance for the comparison group.

The Canton of Vaud (CV) Community Supervision Program (Switzerland) No Effects - One study
This program was designed to provide a community service alternative to short custodial sentences for inmates, with the goal of improving measures of recidivism (reconviction) and social integration (marriage/employment). This program is rated No Effects. There were no significant, long-term effects on reconviction and social integration.

New Jersey Adult Diagnostic Treatment Center (ADTC) Promising - One study
The program provides both cognitive–behavioral treatment and relapse prevention to repetitive, compulsive sex offenders. Cognitive–behavioral treatments focus on reconstructing offender’s cognitive distortions; relapse prevention focuses on pattern recognition and breaking the cycle of recommitting sex crimes. The program is rated Promising. The intervention participants were 2.4 times less likely to recidivate, compared with the general prison-population comparison group.

Ready, Willing, and Able (RWA) No Effects - One study
This is a transitional employment program that gives those who are newly released from prison the opportunity to work and find housing. RWA seeks to provide clients with work and foundational skills so that they can obtain a job, secure housing, and become financially independent. The program is rated No Effects. RWA had no significant impact on arrests, convictions, and prison sentences after 3 years; however, it did have a significant impact on jail sentences after 3 years.

Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration (TJRD) No Effects - One study
The program is designed to improve behavioral and performance job skills, provide services and support, and help find job placements for participants leaving prison. The program is rated No Effects. The results showed that participation in transitional job services led to increased employment early in the follow-up period, but as participants went from transitional jobs to regular jobs, the employment increase faded. There was no significant impact on recidivism over the 2-year follow up.

EMPLOY (Minnesota) Promising - One study
This is a prisoner-reentry employment program designed to reduce recidivism by helping participants find and retain employment after release from prison. It provides participants with employment assistance during the last several months of confinement through the first year following their release from prison. The program is rated Promising. Results suggested that participants in the program reported significantly lower rates of recidivism and higher rates of employment post-release.

Lifestyle Change Program Promising - One study
This is a psychological intervention for incarcerated males, which addresses the lifestyle concepts around crime, drug use, and gambling. The main objective of the program is to reduce recidivism through introducing program participants to lifestyle changes centering on the identification of conditions, choices, and cognition of crimes. The program is rated Promising. The program participants were significantly less likely to be rearrested and reincarcerated during the follow up.

Postsecondary Correctional Education (New Mexico) Promising - One study
The program provides postsecondary educational classes and programs to prisoners via one-way Internet courses or onsite vocational instruction. The goal of the program is to reduce arrests following release from prison. The program is rated Promising. This program was shown to significantly reduce arrests within the 1-year follow-up period.

San Juan County (N.M.) DWI First Offenders Program–Victim Impact Panels No Effects - One study
The program is a component of the San Juan County (N.M.) DWI First Offenders Program, which was designed to reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism, alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving behavior by exposing offenders to testimonials from victims of drunk-driving accidents. The program is rated No Effects. No significant differences were found between VIP and no-VIP program participants on DWI recidivism over 2 years, and on various measures of drinking.

Minnesota Prison Work Release Program Promising - One study
This program was designed to help participants make a successful transition from prison to the community through stable housing, support, and employment after their release. The program is rated Promising. The work-release program significantly decreased recidivism outcomes and improved employment outcomes. However, revocation for technical violations were significantly higher for program participants.

Alameda County (Calif.) Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment Program No Effects - One study
This is a post-custody, community-based intervention for individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. The program is rated No Effects. While the program significantly reduced the number of reconvictions and incarcerations, it did not reduce the number of arrests, days in jail, felony convictions, or percent of reconvictions.

Connections Program (San Diego, Calif.) No Effects - One study
This program used coordinated service teams to support mentally ill individuals leaving prison in transitioning back into the community. The program is rated No Effects. Program participants were significantly less likely to return to jail during the program treatment period. However, there were no significant effects on reconvictions during the program treatment period or return to jail at the 6-month follow up.

Wichita (Kansas) Work Release Program Promising - One study
This is a reentry program designed to facilitate selected individuals’ transition from incarceration to community living by providing work opportunities outside of correctional facilities and less structured housing alternatives. The program is rated Promising. Program completers had significantly lower recidivism rates, compared with comparison group members who did not participate in the program, at the 3-year follow-up period.

Minnesota’s Enhanced Supervision Release Program No Effects - One study
This is an intensive, supervised release program for persons at high risk for reoffense and who are mandated to residential treatment upon release from prison. The program gradually reduces restrictions as the persons on parole transition back into the community. The program is rated No Effects. Results showed no significant effects on recidivism measures, including rearrest, revocation for technical violations, reconviction, and days in prison.

National Supported Work Demonstration Project (Multisite) No Effects - One study
The program was designed to help hard-to-employ individuals acquire skills, habits, and credentials necessary to find and hold permanent, unsubsidized employment. The goal was to prepare individuals for regular employment, reduce unemployment, and reduce criminal behavior and substance use. The program is rated No Effects. There were no significant differences on number of arrests and time to arrests between participants and nonparticipants.

Residential Aftercare Component of Quehanna (PA) Motivational Boot Camp Program No Effects - One study
This program provides residential aftercare services for those with substance abuse issues who have completed the 6-month Quehanna (PA) Motivational Boot Camp Program. The program is rated No Effects. An examination of the impact of both 30- and 90-day aftercare programs found no significant effects of treatment of either dosage on recidivism.

Quehanna (PA) Motivational Boot Camp No Effects - One study
This 6-month program aims to reduce recidivism by diverting eligible candidates from prison to a boot camp that promotes discipline, structure, and characteristics of good citizenship and seeks to improve skills for reentry into the community. The program is rated No Effects. Though the differences in the 3-year recidivism rates between the boot camp participants compared with non-participants were statistically significant, the differences were small.

Community Mediation Maryland Re-Entry Mediation Promising - One study
This program brings together inmates, their families, and other supporters to discuss inmates’ past experiences and future expectations in a mediated session. The session is designed to facilitate communication, understanding, and a plan for reentry to help inmates successfully transition into the community after release. The program is rated Promising. This program was found to significantly reduce rearrest, reconviction, and return to prison for program participants.

Turning Point Multiple DUI Treatment Program Promising - One study
This was a residential treatment program that targeted individuals who committed multiple driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenses. The program combined educational components with individualized treatment and therapy to address substance use and interrupt the cycle of committing DUI offenses. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the rate of committing any offense and of committing a DUI offense, but not of committing other alcohol-related offenses.

Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (Cook County, Ill.) No Effects - One study
This intervention linked women who committed nonviolent offenses to community-based, substance use treatment after release from jail. It was designed to reduce recidivism, HIV-risk behaviors, and alcohol and drug use, and to promote long-term recovery. This program is rated No Effects. The treatment group was significantly more likely to participate in substance use treatment, compared with the control group; however, there were no significant effects for recidivism or alcohol and drug use.

Enhanced Thinking Skills (England) Effective - More than one study
This is a prison-based, cognitive–behavioral skills enhancement program in England. The program is rated Effective. The evaluations of the program showed significantly reduced reconviction rates of program participants, compared with non-participants.

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (North Dakota) Promising - One study
This program provides enhanced reentry services to support parolees with successful transition back into the community. Services include chemical dependency treatment, psychiatric treatment, educational training, and assistance in finding housing. The program is rated Promising. The program was found to have a statistically significant, moderate effect on rearrest, but no statistically significant effect on revocation of parole.

Opportunity to Succeed (OPTS) No Effects - One study
This program was designed to reduce relapse and criminal recidivism by providing comprehensive aftercare services to individuals convicted of felonies, with alcohol- and drug-related histories. The program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant program effects on rearrests, substance abuse relapse, or employment.

Regional Treatment Centre Sex Offender Treatment Program (Canada) No Effects - One study
This inpatient program provides group and individual therapy to those who have committed sexual offenses and have recently been released from prison in Ontario, Canada. The program is rated No Effects. There was no significant difference in sexual recidivism rates between the treatment group and the comparison group.

Collaborative Behavioral Management in Six Sites No Effects - One study
This program involved collaborative sessions among a parole officer, treatment counselor, and the parolee. The intervention provided parole officers with positive tools to manage parolee behavior. The program aimed to reduce substance use, crime, and re-arrest among drug-involved parolees. The program is rated No Effects. Results showed that the intervention did not significantly reduce re-arrest or overall drug use.

San Diego (Calif.) Prisoner Reentry Program No Effects - One study
The program, established by Senate Bill 618, was designed to educate and rehabilitate incarcerated nonviolent felons in an effort to reduce recidivism and revocations to prison. The program is rated No Effects. There was a small but statistically significant impact on program participants’ rates of rearrest. But there was no statistically significant differences on reconviction and return to prison rates between program participants and those who were not in the program.

Challenge Incarceration Program (CIP) Promising - One study
This boot camp intervention in Minnesota combines a traditional military institutional program for 6 months with two 6-month phases of intensive, supervised release aftercare. The program is rated Promising. Program participants had statistically significant lower rates of re-arrest, felony reconviction, and return to prison for a new offense than the comparison group, but no statistically significant difference in the rate of return to prison for any offense.

Texas Intensive Supervision Parole (Houston and Dallas) No Effects - More than one study
This program was designed to increase monitoring and control of parolees who demonstrated poor parole performance and were at high risk of returning to prison for a parole violation. This program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant differences in reconviction, rearrest, and employment rates between groups in both Houston and Dallas. In Houston, program participants were significantly more likely to have technical violations than those in the control group.

College Program at Maryland Correctional Training Center (MCTC) Promising - One study
This program offered postsecondary education for incarcerated individuals to reduce or break the cycle of continued or repeated criminal behavior. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the program had a statistically significant lower rate of arrests for a new crime than comparison group members.

Social Support Treatment with Drug Testing (Maryland) Promising - One study
This program involves social support integrated with regular drug testing for recently paroled individuals who have a history of heroin and cocaine abuse. The program is rated Promising. Program participants had a statistically significant lower rate of reconviction, arrest, and incarceration, compared with the comparison group; however, there were no statistically significant effects on employment. Program participants also had a statistically significant higher positive drug-testing rate.

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (Midwestern State) Promising - One study
This program provides enhanced reentry services to support parolees with successful transition back into the community. The program follows the principles of the risk-needs-responsivity model by targeting services to those with highest risk, addressing dynamic risk factors, and emphasizing cognitive-behavioral strategies throughout the program. The program is rated Promising. The program was found to have a statistically significant effect on reconviction, but no effect on return to prison.

Indianapolis (Indiana) Reentry Project No Effects - One study
This was a reentry program in which individuals returning from prison were ordered by their parole or probation officers to participate in a 1-hour meeting within 90 days of their release. The meetings were meant to convey an intolerance for violence in the community and to allow the individuals to connect with service providers. The program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have no statistically significant effects on the likelihood of rearrest and the time to rearrest.

Earned Early Release (Washington State) Promising - One study
Under a 2003 Washington State law, incarcerated individuals who had committed certain nonviolent offenses were able to acquire earlier release time of up to 50 percent of their maximum sentence. The program is rated Promising. Individuals who were released early under the law had a statistically significant lower rate of felony convictions, compared with individuals who were not released early; however, there was no statistically significant difference on violent convictions.

Returning Home – Ohio (RHO) Pilot Program Promising - One study
This program linked incarcerated persons who had disabilities and were at risk for homelessness to supportive housing upon their release from prison. The goal was to reduce recidivism, homelessness, and multiple systems use. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to statistically significantly reduce the probability of rearrest (but not re-incarceration) and length of time from release to rearrest; however, treatment group participants were rearrested more frequently.

Florida Work Release Program Promising - One study
This reentry program allows individuals who are nearing the end of their custodial sentences to work regular jobs in the community. The program is based in work release centers in participants’ counties of residence in Florida. The program is rated as Promising. The program was found to have a statistically significant effect on reducing reconvictions of participants and increasing their employment and quarterly earnings post-release.

Brief Motivational Interviewing for Alcohol Use (Incarcerated Women) No Effects - One study
This program was designed to provide an alcohol intervention to incarcerated women with hazardous drinking habits who were being released from prison. The program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment and comparison groups on the number of days abstinent from alcohol consumption at the 6-month follow up.

Intensive Supervision for High-Risk Probationers in California No Effects - One study
This is an enhanced probation intervention targeted at high-risk individuals in three counties in California. The program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant effects of the intervention on rearrest. At one site, the treatment group had statistically significantly more technical violations, than the comparison group; however, there were no statistically significant effects on technical violation rates at the other two sites.

Discretionary Parole in New Jersey Promising - One study
This allows individuals to be released early from a prison in New Jersey and complete the remainder of their sentences under supervision, with the goal of reducing recidivism. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group released early from prison had statistically significantly lower rates of reconviction, number of days until reconviction, re-arrests, and days to re-arrest, compared with those who had completed their entire sentences and were unconditionally released to the community.

Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) and Non-Hospital Residential (NHR) Program Promising - One study
These were community-based, substance abuse treatment programs for recently paroled, substance-dependent individuals. The primary aim of the programs was to treat participants’ substance abuse in the community while reducing their likelihood of reoffending. The program is rated Promising. Program participants were less likely to be convicted of a new crime, when compared with the community comparison group; this was a statistically significant difference.

Mentally Ill Offender Community Transition Program (Washington) Effective - One study
The program is targeted at individuals whose mental illnesses are seen as instrumental in their offenses, and who are likely to qualify for and benefit from publicly supported treatment in the community. The overall goal is to reduce recidivism . The program is rated Effective. Participants in the program were less likely to be convicted of any new offense and convicted of felony offenses, compared with the matched comparison group. The difference was statistically significant.

Cognitive Skills Training (Georgia) No Effects - More than one study
Implemented by the Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles, this is a cognitive–behavioral program for male parolees that aims to build psychosocial skills in areas such as self-control, interpersonal problem-solving, and critical reasoning. The program is rated No Effects. The authors found no statistically significant effect of program participation on recidivism and employment measures.

Functional Family Parole Promising - One study
This is a supervision program that incorporates family-focused, strengths-based principles of Functional Family Therapy. The goal of the program is to reduce re-arrests and increase employment rates. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the intervention were less likely to be re-arrested, more likely to be employed, and earned more per quarter, compared with the comparison group. These findings were statistically significant.

Milwaukee Safe Streets Prisoner Release Initiative (PRI) Promising - One study
This program combines enhanced employment opportunities and wraparound services for prisoners before and after release from prison. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant reduction in likelihood of rearrests for program group participants, compared with the control group. There was also a lower rate of reimprisonment for program participants than nonparticipants; however, this difference was not statistically significant.
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Practice Snapshot

Age: 18+

Gender: Both

Race/Ethnicity: Black, Other, White

Targeted Population: Prisoners

Settings: Correctional, Other Community Setting

Practice Type: Aftercare/Reentry, Alcohol and Drug Therapy/Treatment, Cognitive Behavioral Treatment, Gender-Specific Programming, Probation/Parole Services, Reentry Court, Violence Prevention, Vocational/Job Training

Unit of Analysis: Other

Researcher:
Mirlinda Ndrecka
Assistant Professor
Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences, University of New Haven
300 Boston Post Rd.
West Haven CT 06516
Phone: 203.479.4146
Website
Email