National Institute of Justice National Institute of Justice. Research. Development. Evaluation. Office of Justice Programs
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Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach An outpatient program targeting 13 to 25 year olds that aims to replace activities supporting alcohol and drug use with positive behaviors that support recovery. The program is rated Effective. Participants were more likely to seek out and continue care services, abstain from substance use (in particular, marijuana), had less reported depression and internalized behaviors problems, and more social stability (i.e., working, receiving education, in a home or shelter, or receiving medical care).
Adolescent Diversion Project (Michigan State University) A strengths-based, advocacy oriented program that diverts arrested youth from formal processing in the juvenile justice system and provides them community-based services. This program is rated Effective. The program was associated with a significant reduction in the rates of official delinquency of participating juveniles as compared to juveniles formally processed in the system. However, the program did not significantly affect youths’ self-reported delinquency.
Adults in the Making (AIM) A family-centered preventive intervention designed to enhance the family protective process and self-regulatory competence to deter escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems. The program is rated Effective. Overall, the preponderance of evidence indicates that the program has a positive impact on deterring the use of alcohol, drugs, and involvement in other risky behaviors among participants.
Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) A multidimensional psychoeducational intervention designed to promote prosocial behavior in chronically aggressive and violent adolescents using techniques to develop social skills, emotional control, and moral reasoning.
Alley-Gating in Liverpool (England) Alley-gating involves placing hardwearing, lockable gates to restrict access of an alley to local residents with the aim of reducing opportunities for potential offenders. The program is rated Effective. The analysis found that the greater the “intensity” of the intervention (i.e., the number of gates fitted, blocks protected, or houses protected), the larger the reduction in burglary, and spatial diffusion was observed in 4 out of seven buffer zones along with some tactical displacement.
Assisted Outpatient Treatment (AOT) Also known as outpatient commitment, it is a civil legal procedure whereby a judge can order an individual with a serious mental illness to follow a court-ordered treatment plan while living in the community. The program is rated Effective. The study found participants had lower odds of arrest, arrest for violent behavior, and a reduction in overall violent behavior if they received longer treatment and more outpatient community visits.
Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse A family-based treatment approach for substance- and alcohol-abusing couples and their families. The program is rated Effective. At follow-up, patients reported significant reductions in substance use, higher marital adjustment test scores, relationship satisfaction, and decreased drinking rates than the individual-based treatment group.
Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) Community-Based Mentoring (CBM) Program Offers one-to-one mentoring in a community setting for at-risk youth between the ages of 6 and 18. This program is rated Effective. It was associated with a significant reduction in initiating drug and alcohol use and antisocial behavior among mentored youth. Also, mentored youth had significantly better relationships with parents and emotional support among peers. The program, however, did not have a significant effect on youths’ academic performance (grades and absences) or self-worth.
Biting Back in Huddersfield (England) A program designed to reduce repeat victimization in domestic burglary and thefts from cars. The program is rated Effective. There was a greater decrease in recorded and repeats crime than the surrounding areas. There was an increase in satisfaction with police services and no evidence of displaced crime.
Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention of College Students (BASICS) A preventive intervention for college students designed to help students make better decisions about using alcohol. The program is rated Effective. The intervention group significantly reduced the negative consequences related to drinking, lowered drinking quantities over the 4-year period, and had significantly fewer drinks per weekend than the control group. There were no significant differences in the quantities of alcohol consumed during the week between the two groups.
Bronx (NY) Treatment Court An alternative to probation and confinement for first-time nonviolent felony drug offenders. The program is rated Effective. The study found a significant reduction in postarrest recidivism. Recidivism was found to be more common during the in-program period than post-program.
Brooklyn (NY) Treatment Court A drug court that offers substance abuse treatment for nonviolent felony and misdemeanor drug offenders. The program is rated Effective. The study found a reduction in postarrest recidivism and a significantly lower probability of reconviction than the comparison group.
Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment Used in the treatment of patients with opioid dependence to alleviate withdrawal symptoms, suppress opiate effects and cravings, and decrease the risk of overdose. The program is rated Effective. The experimental group had more days of participation, treatment retention, decreased drug use, improved well-being and mental health. Participants had significantly reduced opiate cravings.
Career Academy A school within a school that uses a multifaceted approach to foster academic success, mental and emotional health, and labor market success. The program is rated Effective. The program had a significant, positive effect on earnings among young men in the Academy group. However, there was no significant effect on young women’s labor market outcomes or on all participating youths’ high school completion rate, post-secondary education or attainment, or social adjustment outcomes.
Checkpoint Tennessee A year-long statewide sobriety checkpoint program in Tennessee intended to combat impaired driving and reduce alcohol-related car crashes. The program is rated Effective. Researchers observed a 20.4 percent reduction over the projected number of drunk-driving fatal crashes that would have occurred with no intervention. There was a statistically significant reduction in nighttime single-vehicle injury crashes after the start of the program, positive public opinion and awareness of the program.
Children with Problematic Sexual Behavior–Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (PSB–CBT) This outpatient treatment program’s primary goal is to reduce sexual behavior problems among school-age children, through the provision of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychoeducational, and supportive services to children and families. This program is rated Effective. Compared to youths in play therapy, youths in the CBT for sexual behavior problems group had significantly fewer sexual offenses. There was no significant difference in the rate of non-sexual offenses between these groups.
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) A cognitive and behavioral therapy group intervention for reducing children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression caused by exposure to violence. The program is rated Effective. The study found significantly lower scores of self-reported PTSD, depressive symptoms and psychosocial dysfunction than the comparison group.
DNA Field Experiment A program to evaluate the impact of DNA evidence collection and testing on the investigation of high-volume property crimes. The program is rated Effective. Property crime cases resulted in more than twice as many suspects identified, arrested and more cases accepted for prosecution, compared with traditional investigation.
Engine Immobilizers Devices that prevent a vehicle from starting unless they receive the correct signal from the driver. The goal of these systems is to reduce car theft. The program is rated Effective. Cars fitted with immobilizers reduced rates of theft compared with cars not fitted with the device.
Families And Schools Together (FAST) A multifamily group intervention program designed to build protective factors for children, empower parents to be primary prevention agents, and to build supportive parent-to-parent groups. The program is rated Effective. Two studies found participants had fewer problem behaviors than their controls. There were mixed study results on social skills and academic competency. Other study findings were higher academic performance, improved family functioning and lower special education placement.
Family Matters A family-directed program to reduce tobacco and alcohol use among 12- to 14-year-olds.
First Step to Success An early intervention program designed to identify children with antisocial behavior and introduce adaptive behavioral strategies to prevent antisocial behavior in school. The program has both school and home components.
Functional Family Therapy (FFT) A family-based prevention and intervention program for at-risk youths ages 11 to 18.
Good Behavior Game A classroom management strategy for children ages 6 to 10 designed to improve aggressive/disruptive classroom behavior and prevent later criminality.
Guiding Good Choices A multimedia family competency training program that promotes healthy, protective parent–child interactions and addresses children’s risk for early substance use.
Harlem (NY) Children's Zone – Promise Academy Charter Middle School A charter middle school that seeks to give students in grades 6–8 a well-rounded, high-quality education. The Promise Academy is part of the Harlem Children’s Zone, a 97-block area in Harlem, NY, that combines "no excuses" charter schools with communitywide initiatives to address some of the problems faced by underprivileged children.
High Point Drug Market Intervention A problem oriented policing program that aims to eliminate overt drug markets and the problems associated with them through a deterrence-based, pulling-levers framework.
HOMEBUILDERS An in-home, intensive family preservation service (IFPS) and reunification program for families with children (newborn to 17 years old) returning from or at risk of out-of-home placement.
Hot Spots Policing (Lowell, Mass.) A crime-reduction policing strategy that uses a disorder policing approach to concentrate on improving physical and social order in high-crime locations in Lowell, Mass.
INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament A school-based intervention program delivered to urban elementary students, with the participation of parents and teachers, to address disruptive behaviors. The program was rated Effective. In both studies, authors found that the intervention had a marginal-to-moderate effect on behavior problems exhibited by children.
Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) An automated ballistics imaging and analysis system that populates a computerized database of digital ballistic images of bullets and casings from crime guns; the system assists forensic experts in making identifications for investigations and trials.
Jackson County (Ore.) Community Family Court A family drug court program for parents with admitted substance abuse allegations whose children are wards of the State of Oregon and are in the custody of the Department of Human Services.
Kirkholt (England) Burglary Prevention Project A burglary reduction program that involved working with burglary victims, their neighbors, and potential offenders to remove opportunities and motivations to commit burglary.
LifeSkills® Training A classroom-based tobacco-, alcohol-, and drug abuse–prevention program for upper elementary and junior high school students.
Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) A program designed to prevent the development of aggressive and antisocial behaviors in children within an elementary school setting.
Maryland Ignition Interlock Program Maryland introduced the Ignition Interlock Program for drivers with multiple alcohol offenses to decrease the number of subsequent alcohol-related traffic violations.
Methadone Maintenance Treatment A medication-assisted treatment for individuals with opioid dependence.
Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) A school-based comprehensive program intended to promote an antidrug message throughout communities and prevent substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among middle school students.
Milwaukee (Wis.) Homicide Review Commission (MHRC) A program that provides a unique forum for addressing violence in Milwaukee, Wis., by engaging law enforcement and other stakeholders in the community to assess and evaluate the cause of homicides in efforts to prevent future incidents.
Minneapolis (MN) Hot Spots Experiment A program that increased police presence in crime “hot spots” to reduce criminal activity in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Multidimensional Family Therapy A manualized family-based treatment and substance abuse prevention program developed for adolescents with drug and behavior problems. The program is typically delivered in an outpatient setting, but it can also be used in inpatient settings.
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care–Adolescents A behavioral treatment alternative to residential placement for adolescents who have problems with chronic antisocial behavior, emotional disturbance, and delinquency. This program is rated Effective. It was associated with a significant drop in official criminal referral rates, involvement in criminal activities, and days spent in lock up among MTFC-A boys. Similarly, the program was associated with a significant reduction in delinquency and days spent in lock up among MTFC-A girls.
Multisystemic Therapy (MST) A family and community-based treatment program for adolescent offenders who have exhibited serious antisocial, problem, and delinquent behaviors.
Multisystemic Therapy–Substance Abuse A version of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) targeted to adolescents with substance abuse and dependency issues.
Multnomah County (Ore.) Sanction Treatment Opportunity Progress (STOP) Drug Diversion Program A drug court in Multnomah County, Ore., that focuses on providing treatment services for offenders facing first-offense drug charges. This is the second-oldest drug court in the country.
Nurse–Family Partnership A home visitation program for low-income, first-time mothers to improve family functioning.
Operation Ceasefire (Boston, Mass.) A problem-solving police strategy that seeks to reduce gang violence, illegal gun possession, and gun violence in communities in Boston, Mass.
Operation Cul-de-Sac Program that supports the installation of permanent traffic barriers in high-crime neighborhoods to reduce gang drive-by shootings, assaults, and homicides.
Operation Peacekeeper A community and problem-oriented policing program in Stockton, CA, to reduce gang involvement and violence among urban youth (10-18). Youth Outreach Workers served as mentors for youth in neighborhood settings. This program is rated Effective. The program was associated with a significant decrease in the monthly number of gun homicides. Also, when compared to gun homicide trends in other midsize California cities, the reduction in homicides in Stockton could be associated with the program.
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) Teaches parents new interaction and discipline skills to reduce child problem behaviors and parental physical child abuse by improving relationships and responses to difficult behavior.
Perry Preschool Project Provides high-quality education for disadvantaged children ages 3 to 4 to improve their capacity for future success in school and in life.
Philadelphia (Pa.) Foot Patrol A place-based policing strategy that used walking-officer patrol in crime hot spots to reduce violent crime in Philadelphia, PA.
Portland (OR) Burglary Prevention Project A community crime-prevention program in Portland, Oregon, that used a combination of private prevention techniques and neighborhood prevention efforts to protect neighborhoods from burglary.
Positive Action A program that is designed to improve youth academics, behavior, and character and that can be used by schools, families, or communities.
Positive Family Support (PFS) Formerly known as Adolescent Transitions Program (ATP), PFS is a multilevel, family-centered intervention targeting children at risk for problem behaviors or substance use and their families.
Prize-Based Incentive Contingency Management for Substance Abusers A version of contingency management that provides adult substance abusers in community-based treatment with an opportunity to win prizes if they remain drug free.
Project BUILD A violence prevention curriculum designed to assist youths in detention overcome obstacles such as gangs, violence, crime, and substance abuse.
Prolonged Exposure Therapy A cognitive–behavioral treatment program for individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.
Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) A prevention program that promotes emotional and social competencies and reduces aggression and behavior problems in elementary school–aged children.
Queens (NY) Treatment Court A drug court program for first-time nonviolent felony drug offenders who are arrested in Queens County, New York. The court provides drug or alcohol treatment services to persistent drug offenders with a history of substance abuse.
Reduced Probation Caseload in Evidence-Based Setting (Iowa) The program aims to reduce recidivism of high-risk probationers by assigning them to intensive supervision by an officer with a reduced caseload, using evidence-based practices. By combining the use of increased supervision with the monitoring of offender treatment progress and environment, the program ensures that resources are concentrated on offenders with the greatest risk of reoffending.
Reduced Probation Caseload in Evidence-Based Setting (Oklahoma City) The program aims to reduce recidivism of high-risk probationers by assigning them to intensive supervision by an officer with a reduced caseload, using evidence-based practices. By combining the use of increased supervision, and monitoring offender treatment progress and environment, the program ensures that resources are concentrated on offenders with the greatest risk of reoffending.
Safe Dates A school-based prevention program for middle and high school students designed to stop or prevent the initiation of dating violence victimization and perpetration.
Safer Cities Programme (UK) An initiative designed to reduce crime and fear of crime, and to create safer environments for economic and community life to flourish.
San Diego (Calif.) Drug Abatement Response Team (DART) A program designed to reduce drug dealing at residential rental properties by encouraging improved property management practices.
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) A universal, school-wide prevention strategy aimed at reducing behavior problems that lead to office discipline referrals and suspensions, and change perceptions of school safety. The program is rated Effective. Students in the SWPBIS schools received significantly fewer school suspensions than students in schools that did not receive SWPBIS training. Perceptions of safety improved in the schools that implemented SWPBIS, but declined in the schools that did not implement SWPBIS.
Second Step®: A Violence Prevention Curriculum A universal prevention program designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children and adolescents by increasing their social competency skills.
SNAP® Under 12 Outreach Project A multisystemic intervention for boys under age 12 displaying aggressive and antisocial behavior problems. This program is rated Effective. It was associated with a significant decrease in children’s delinquency and aggression scores as well as a significant reduction in children’s levels of behaviors such as rule-breaking, aggression, and conduct problems. However, there was no significant effect of the program on the total numbers of convictions.
Specialized Multi Agency Response Team (SMART) A drug-control program in Oakland, Calif., to reduce drug-related problems and improve habitation conditions at targeted sites.
Steps to Respect® A school-based antibullying program that teaches social and emotion management skills to elementary school students to improve relationships and buffer the detrimental effects of bullying.
Stop School Bullying (Greece) A preventative, school-based program for students in 4th, 5th, and 6th grades (ages 9–12) that sought to reduce rates of bullying and victimization within elementary schools. The program is rated Effective. Evaluation results suggest that the program significantly reduced bullying and victimization rates at schools that implemented the program compared with a control group of schools that did not.
Street Lighting in Dudley (England) A program to reduce the prevalence and incidence of crime by improving street lighting in residential areas.
Street Lighting in Stoke-on-Trent (England) A program that upgrades street lighting on residential roads and footpaths to decrease crime and fear of crime.
Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 An adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program that aims to reduce substance use and behavior problems during adolescence through improved skills in nurturing and child management by parents and improved interpersonal and personal competencies among youths.
Strong African American Families (SAAF) A 7-week alcohol-, drug use-, and early sexual activity–reduction program concentrating on rural African American youths (ages 10–14) that improves parenting practices and family communication and teaches the youths resistance skills.
Success for All (SFA) A schoolwide, intensive educational intervention to detect and resolve literacy problems for school children in preschool through sixth grade, mostly in high-poverty schools.
Suffolk County (NY) Drug Treatment Court An alternative to incarceration for drug-abusing defendants facing a broad range of charges in Suffolk County, New York. The drug court program provides substance abuse treatment and education, as well as case management and intensive supervision.
Teams–Games–Tournaments (TGT) Alcohol Prevention An approach to alcohol prevention that combines peer support with group reward structures. It is typically delivered to high school students.
The Incredible Years A parent training, teacher training, and child social skills training approach to reducing challenging behaviors in children and increasing their social and self-control skills.
Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET) A manualized, trauma-focused psychotherapy for adolescents and adults suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF–CBT) A treatment intervention designed to help children and their parents overcome the negative effects and emotional distress of traumatic life events such as child sexual or physical abuse.
Triple P – Positive Parenting Program A multilevel system designed to enhance parental competence and prevent or alter dysfunctional parenting practices. By enhancing parenting practices, the program aims to reduce family risk factors for child maltreatment and children’s behavioral and emotional problems.
4th R Curriculum The 4th R is an interactive classroom curriculum that aims to reduce youth dating violence by addressing youth violence and bullying, unsafe sexual behavior, and substance use. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly lower physical dating violence rates among boys. However, there was no significant difference in physical peer violence, substance use or condom use between the control and intervention groups.
Aban Aya Youth Project A school- and community-based program developed specifically for African American youth to avoid conflict and reduce drug/alcohol use. The program is rated Promising. Boys receiving one of the treatment conditions showed less of an increase in provoking behavior, school delinquency, substance use, and early sexual activity/risky sexual activity than those receiving the control condition. There were significant program effects for all problem behaviors for boys receiving community intervention.
Achievement Mentoring Program (AMP) An intervention for urban minority freshmen at risk of dropping out of high school. The goal was to enhance school-related cognitions and behaviors. The program is rated Promising. The program did not significantly impact students’ absences, grade point averages, or decision-making efficacy, but had significant effects on discipline referrals, negative school behavior, performance in mathematics and language arts, and other self-reported outcomes.
Across Ages A mentoring initiative designed to delay or reduce substance use of at-risk middle school youth through a comprehensive intergenerational approach. This program is rated Promising. The program significantly reduced school absences and had a positive effect on measures of youths’ reactions to situations involving drug use and attitudes toward school, the future, and elders. However, the program did not impact youths’ frequency of substance use or well-being.
Active Parenting of Teens: Families in Action A family-based alcohol, tobacco, and other-drug abuse prevention program that targets families with middle school children. The program is rated Promising. Participants reported greater family cohesion, school attachment, higher levels of self-esteem, and an older age for alcohol consumption than the control group. Also, program parents reported stronger attitudes against minor alcohol use. There was no significant difference between the control and treatment group on attitudes of tobacco use.
Adolescent Diversion Program (New York State) A diversion program for 16- and 17-year-old defendants in the New York state adult criminal justice system. The program is rated Promising. Similar rates of recidivism were found for ADP participants and comparison group members, suggesting that diverting older adolescents would not increase recidivism and risk to the public.
Adults and Children Together (ACT) Raising Safe Kids Program A national anti-violence intervention designed to prevent child maltreatment by providing education, resources, and support to parents. The program is rated Promising. Program parents reported a statistically significant decline in harsh discipline as measured by the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC) from the pretest to 3-month follow-up period. There was no statistical difference between the comparison groups for PBC in nurturing, expectation, or parent stress measures.
Aggression Replacement Training (ART) for Adolescents in a Runaway Shelter A program that targets adolescents who live in a short-term facility (a runaway shelter) and exhibit signs of antisocial behavior problems (ASB). The program combines anger-control training, social skills training, and moral reasoning. The program is rated Promising. There was a 20 percent reduction in the rate of ASB incidents per client every week and a statistically significant reduction of 1.1 ASB incident per day.
Al’s Pals: Kids Making Healthy Choices An early childhood curriculum designed to increase the protective factor of social and emotional competence in young children and to decrease the risk factor of early and persistent aggression or antisocial behavior.
Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) An early childhood curriculum designed to increase the protective factor of social and emotional competence in young children and decrease the risk factor of early and persistent aggression or antisocial behavior. The program is rated Promising. Overall, the results were mixed. The intervention group improved significantly on measures of social–emotional competence, prosocial skills, and some measures of coping, but there was no improvement in problem behaviors at the posttest.
Alternatives for Families: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy A comprehensive approach for children and their parents to deal with the effects of child physical abuse, exposure to related abuse, child or family aggression, and hostile family environments. The program is rated Promising. Parents reported less child-to-parent and parent-to-child violence. Children in both treatment groups reported significant reductions for internalizing and externalizing symptoms and parents reported reductions in the belief in the need for physical punishment.
American Indian Life Skills Development A school-based, culturally sensitive, suicide-prevention program for American Indian adolescents, also known as Zuni Life Skills Development. This program is rated Promising. Intervention students demonstrated a significantly higher level of suicide intervention skills. The intervention group showed significantly fewer feelings of hopelessness, however, there were no significant differences on measures of suicide probability and depression.
AMIkids Community-Based Day Treatment Services A day treatment program that provides community-based interventions while allowing youth to reside at home as they attend daily services. The program is rated Promising. The treatment sample was significantly less likely to be adjudicated or convicted for an offense within 12 months of release.
Amity In-Prison Therapeutic Community Provides intensive treatment to male inmates with substance abuse problems during the last 9 to 12 months of their prison term. The volunteer participants must reside in a dedicated program housing unit during treatment. The program is rated Promising. Overall, participants had lower levels of reincarceration rates compared to the control groups.
Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) A team-centered, peer-led harm reduction and health promotion program for high school female athletes. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation showed a significant difference on measures of intentions toward future disordered eating behaviors, drug and alcohol use; but, for participants there were no significant differences in self-reported tobacco use compared to the control group.
Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) A multicomponent school-based drug and alcohol prevention program for male high school athletes. The program is rated Promising. The intervention was associated with significant reductions in the experimental group’s intent to use steroids.
Auglaize County (Ohio) Transition (ACT) Program The program works to reduce recidivism of jail inmates once they reenter the community, in part by linking inmates to various resources. The program is rated Promising. The program was successful in reducing recidivism rates among participants.
Baltimore City (Md.) Drug Treatment Court A court that identifies offenders with substance abuse addiction and offers them a program with treatment rather than incarceration. The program is rated Promising. Participants were significantly less likely to be rearrested and had lower scores of maximum crime seriousness. There was no significant difference between drug court participants and control members with respect to employment, physical and mental health or family and social relationships.
Baltimore City (Md.) Family Recovery Program A family drug court designed to serve families involved with child welfare due to parental substance use. The program is rated Promising. There was no difference in the number of cases that reached permanency. However, in cases that did reach permanent placement, they reached it faster. Children whose parents attended the program spent significantly less time in non-kinship foster care. Parents entered treatment more rapidly, and stayed and completed it more often than the non-treatment group.
Bicultural Competence Skills Approach An intervention designed to prevent Native American adolescents from abusing tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs by teaching them social skills. The program is rated Promising. Two studies showed students were significantly more knowledgeable about substance use and abuse than their control group counterparts. The intervention group reported lower levels of substance use and had more self-control, assertiveness and could generate alternative suggestions to peer pressure.
Boston (Massachusetts) Reentry Initiative (BRI) An interagency public safety initiative to help incarcerated violent adult offenders transition back to their neighborhoods following release from jail through mentoring, social service assistance, and vocational development. The program is rated Promising. The study found participants, relative to the control group, had significantly lower failure rates, arrests for violent crime, or arrests for any crime. The differences between the two groups narrowed somewhat over time.
Boys and Girls Club – Project Learn A non-school program that aims to improve the educational performance of economically disadvantaged adolescents through the provision of out-of-school educational enhancement and enrichment activities. The program is rated Promising. The average grades of treatment youth were significantly higher than control and comparison group youth. The treatment group had significantly fewer days missed, but there were no significant differences between the groups at any follow-up point in the frequency of
Boys Town Family Home Program (Boys Town) A residential program that emphasizes behavioral and academic skills in a family-style setting with the ultimate goal of family reunification. The program is rated Promising. The program significantly increased children’s grade point averages and their perceived level of importance of going to college or chance of completing college. However the program did not have an impact on the years of school completed or receiving a high school diploma or GED.
Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device Program (Illinois) The program requires the installation of ignition interlock devices in motor vehicles to test the breath–alcohol level of drivers convicted of alcohol-related traffic violations. The device prohibits an alcohol-impaired driver from starting and operating the vehicle. The program is rated Promising. The interlock device did deter new violations, but did not promote long-term behavior change.
Brief Strategic Family Therapy A family-based intervention designed to prevent and treat child and adolescent behavior problems. The program is rated Promising. There were three studies with inconsistent findings. The studies showed no effects on adolescent drug use or family functioning. The program had some positive effects on engagement and retention, behavior problems, drug use behavior, and an increase in family functioning.
Bringing in the Bystander A program that aims to increase bystander awareness of sexual and intimate partner violence. The program is rated Promising. The intervention significantly improved the treatment groups' knowledge of sexual violence and had a difference in bystander attitudes (likelihood of intervening), efficacy (confidence in ability to intervene), and behavior (actions taken in the previous 2 months) between the treatment and the control group.
Bully-Proofing Your School A school-based intervention program focused on reducing instances of bullying and victimization, while increasing the safety of students in grades 3–5. The program is rated Promising. In all outcomes, the treatment schools showed significant reductions in bullying, victimization, and witnessed aggression, as well as significant increases in perceptions of safety at school.
Burglary Reduction (Hartlepool, England) A crime prevention program designed to reduce burglary problems in high-crime residential areas. The program is rated Promising. The program led to a reduction in burglaries and repeat victimization in the target area.
Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), Los Angeles (Calif.) A nonprofit organization created by neighborhood property owners or merchants to provide services, activities, and programs to promote local improvements and public safety. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest a reduction in crime and arrests and no crime displacement.
Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), Philadelphia (Pa.) A nonprofit organization created by neighborhood property owners or merchants to provide services, activities, and programs to promote local improvements and public safety. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant reduction in property crime and thefts compared to the control areas and no crime displacement.
Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments A restorative justice program that incorporates the Wagga Wagga conference model as a diversion from conventional court processing. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found a significant decrease in the reoffending rates of violent offenders some impact on offenders’ attitudes about the legitimacy of the law and reoffending. The evaluation found a limited impact of diversionary conferencing on recidivism outcomes.
Care, Assess, Respond, Empower (CARE) A school-based, brief assessment and crisis intervention for youth at risk for suicide. The program is rated Promising. There were findings of attitudinal change not evidenced in behavioral change. In two studies, there was a reduction in suicide-risk behaviors and depression over the short and long-term.
Caring School Community An elementary school program that seeks to strengthen students’ connectedness to school. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found mixed results of the overall effectiveness of the program. One study found significant differences between the intervention and comparison classrooms on some measures of behavior. The other study found few significant differences when examining the high-change schools and no significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups.
CCTV in Five English Cities Closed circuit television cameras were installed in five English town and city centers to reduce crime. The program is rated Promising. Visits to emergency departments for assault-related injuries decreased. Although police-recorded violence increased in both the intervention and control sites, it increased more in the intervention sites than the control sites--a variation across sites and not statistically significant.
CCTV in Gillingham, England A program to install closed-circuit television cameras in the town center and adjacent car parks in Gillingham, England. The program is rated Promising. There was a reduction of crime in the treatment area, specifically driven by declines in property crime. However, violent crime increased in the treatment and comparison area. These increases were statistically significant.
CCTV in Philadelphia (Pa.) A program to install closed-circuit television cameras at different locations in the city of Philadelphia. The program is rated Promising. Camera implementation had no significant impact upon the amount of serious crime in the target area but did significantly reduce the number of crime events and disorder type crimes. There were mixed results with respect to displacement/diffusion of benefits across evaluation sites.
CCTV in Redton, England The town of Redton, England, installed closed-circuit television cameras in the central commercial district to reduce crime. The program is rated Promising. Using a trend analysis, there was no significant overall crime decrease. However, in analyses of separate types of crime, controlling for trends, the reduction was significant for some types of crime (theft of and from vehicles), but not from others (other theft, shoplifting).
CCTV in Southwark, England A program to install closed circuit television cameras in town centers to reduce crime and fear of crime. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation showed a reduction in crime rates and improved public safety perceptions. With respect to displacement, buffer area reductions either matched or exceeded reductions in the target areas.
Changing Course An interactive journal designed to help offenders incarcerated in jail who have been screened or identified as having a potential substance use disorder to help inmates make the connection between their substance use and criminal activity. The program is rated Promising. The recidivism rate of inmates who participated in the program’s interactive journal intervention was significantly lower compared with the control group.
Charlotte–Mecklenburg (N.C.) Police Department Domestic Violence Unit A specialized police unit to prevent recidivism among domestic violence offenders and assist victims of domestic violence. The program is rated Promising. Assigned offenders are less likely to recidivate compared to the control group. Offenders assigned to the unit had significantly lower recidivism frequency rates in comparison to offenders assigned to standard patrol.
Cherokee Talking Circle A culturally-based intervention targeting substance abuse among Native American adolescents. The program was designed for students who were part of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, the eighth largest tribe in Oklahoma. The program is rated Promising. The program was significantly more effective in reducing substance abuse and other related problem behaviors compared with other nonculturally, standard substance abuse education programs.
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) The program brings police, local government agencies, and the community together to prioritize problems and prevention efforts in five Chicago neighborhoods. The program is rated Promising. The study found that in close to half of the target beats, there was a reduction in crime versus what was found in comparison beats. However, the results also showed that there were some unsuccessful cases where the crime rate in the intervention increased versus the comparison beat.
Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI) A brief early intervention and secondary prevention model for children aged 7–18 years who have experienced a potentially traumatic event. The program is rated Promising. Youth in the intervention group had significantly lower posttraumatic and anxiety scores than comparison youth.
Child–Parent Center Program (Chicago, Ill.) A school- and family-based early intervention program that provides comprehensive educational and family support services to economically and educationally disadvantaged children. The program is rated Promising. Intervention participants were less inclined toward criminal behavior, depressive symptoms and completed school at a higher grade level than the control group.
Child–Parent Psychotherapy A relationship-based treatment for parents and young children that aims to help restore normal developmental functioning in the wake of violence and trauma. The program is rated Promising. There were significant differences on measures of child functioning and maternal symptoms between the treatment group and the comparison group.
Clarke County (Ga.) Victim Impact Panels A restorative justice program that requires offenders convicted of driving under the influence to attend victim impact panels, where victims give short presentations describing the pain and loss they have suffered due to a drunk driver. The program is rated Promising. After 5 years, fewer participants were rearrested than offenders who did not attend.
Common Sense Parenting A group-based parent-training class designed for parents of youths who exhibit significant behavior and emotional problems. The program is rated Promising. There were significant posttreatment effects for measures of externalizing behaviors. There were significant effects for measures of satisfaction, efficacy and greater improvement in their satisfaction with family relationships. The study found no statistically significant treatment effects for internalizing problem behavior.
Communities That Care A planning system that helps communities come together to address adolescent behavior problems such as violence, delinquency, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and dropping out of school. The program is rated Promising. At grade seven, risk factors were higher for students in control communities. There were mixed results with respect to substance use initiation. The study found the intervention group was less likely to initiate delinquent behavior.
Community Advocacy Project A 10-week community- and strengths-based advocacy intervention for women with abusive partners. The program is rated Promising. There were mixed results on social support satisfaction and reported reabuse between the treatment and control group. One study reported no statistically significant group differences on continued involvement with the assailant. Overall, participants were more effective in obtaining and seeking resources, had a better quality of life and psychological well-being.
Community and Law Enforcement Resources Together (ComALERT) A reentry program in Brooklyn, N.Y., that provides substance abuse treatment, employment, and housing services for parolees transitioning from prison back into the community. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to be rearrested, reconvicted, or reincarcerated than the matched control group. They had a higher employment rate, but there was no statistical difference in reincarceration by parole violation, co-residence and contact with children, or drug and alcohol use.
Community Trials Intervention to Reduce High-Risk Drinking (RHRD) A multicomponent program for all ages that aims to reduce underage drinking, binge drinking, and drinking and driving by using environmental interventions and community mobilization. The program is rated Promising. The program evidence is mixed with one study finding differences between the intervention and comparison on some measures. However, another study found few statistically significant differences in their targeted outcome evaluation of alcohol-related injuries and police incidents.
Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI) A crime focused initiative, designed to address gang-related gun homicides in selected cities. The initiative involved a comprehensive model of suppression (enforcement), prevention, and reentry. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant reduction in gun homicides related to gang crime in cities that implemented the initiative.
Compstat (Fort Worth, Texas) A policing management program that depends on the cooperation of the entire agency to create a “focused” approach to reduce crime and disorder. The program is rated Promising. The program did not result in increased arrests for all six types of nuisance offenses. However, there was an increase in drunkenness, drug offenses and disorderly conduct arrests. There was no statistically significant effect on violent crime, but an effect on the reduction of property and index offense rates.
Connections A juvenile court-based program designed to address the needs of offenders on probation who have emotional and behavioral disorders and the needs of their families. The approach is meant to be an integrated, seamless, coordinated system of care for children with mental health problems. The program is rated Promising. The intervention youth were significantly less likely to recidivate, commit a felony offense or serve time in detention.
Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline® (CMCD®) A classroom and school reform model that emphasizes shared responsibility for learning and classroom organization between teachers and students. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reading and mathematics achievement on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills reading subtest from pretest to posttest at the end of the second year of intervention.
Coping Power Program A cognitive-based intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents during the children’s transition to middle school, which aims to increase competence, study skills, social skills, and self-control as well as to improve parental involvement in their child’s education. The program is rated Promising. There were mixed results on self-reported delinquency, but overall lower substance use, and improved aggressive behavior for the treatment group.
Court Date Reminder Notices (Nebraska) To reduce failure-to-appear rates, postcard reminders were sent to misdemeanor defendants to remind them of their scheduled court dates. The program is rated Promising. There were significant differences in failure-to-appear rates between the experimental groups that received any type of postcard reminder and the control group that received no reminder.
Cure Violence (Chicago, Illinois) A violence prevention program that uses a public health approach, using trained street violence interrupters and outreach workers, public education campaigns, and community mobilization to reduce shootings and killings. This program is rated Promising. The program was associated with significant reductions in shootings, killings, and retaliatory homicides and also appeared to make shooting hot spots cooler in some neighborhoods but not others.
Dallas (Texas) Anti-Gang Initiative A policing initiative that used intensive patrol and enforcement of curfew and truancy ordinances to reduce gang-related activity and violence among juveniles in Dallas, Texas. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant decrease in violent gang-related offenses. There were no statistically significant reductions in gang-related offenses reported to police.
DARE to be You A prevention program aimed at high-risk families with children ages 2–5 to lower the risk of future substance abuse and other high-risk activities via improved parenting. The program is rated Promising. There were notable child outcomes, increased parent self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, improved attribution/reasoning skills, but little impact on locus of control. There was no significant difference between groups on measures of stress and mixed results on child-rearing practices.
Delaware KEY/Crest Substance Abuse Programs A prison-based therapeutic community for offenders with a history of substance abuse and a residential work release center that allows offenders to continue their treatment as they transition to the community. The program is rated Promising. Program completers and aftercare recipients were less likely to be arrested or use drugs. Also, the treatment group did better at follow-up in remaining arrest and drug-free.
Deterrent-Letter Project (Quebec, Canada) A deterrence-based intervention that took place in four Quebec insurance companies aimed to deter residential theft insurance claimants from exaggerating the value of their claims. The program is rated Promising. The project resulted in a statistically significant reduction in claim padding compared to the control group.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education + Play and Learn Under Supervision (DARE + PLUS) A school-based drug use education prevention program taught by police officers in schools. The program targets junior-high/middle school students and is a booster or complement to the DARE program. The program is rated Promising. Boys in DARE + PLUS schools were less likely to show increases in alcohol, tobacco or multidrug use, and girls were less likely to report increases in ever having been drunk compared to DARE-only schools. Program children reported less violent behavior.
Drug Market Analysis Program (Jersey City, NJ) A "hot spots" policing program targeting identified drug activity locations to reduce public disorder by engaging local residents and business owners and applying pressure via crackdowns. The program is rated Promising. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control locations on violence and property offenses; but, there were reductions in disorder and narcotics offenses and fewer calls for service for some measures in the treatment catchment areas.
Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison (DTAP) The first prosecution-led residential drug treatment diversion program in the country, the program diverts nonviolent felony drug offenders to community-based residential treatment. The program is rated Promising. Participation in the program led to reduction in the prevalence and rate of recidivism and delayed time to first rearrest.
DUII Intensive Supervision Program (DISP) A comprehensive 3-year program that includes swift sanctions, intensive probation, close monitoring, and mandatory treatment for repeated impaired-driving offenders. The program is rated Promising. There were statistically significant differences between the treatment and comparison group across all counties. The treatment group experienced lower DUI recidivism, driving with a revoked or suspended license recidivism and any other traffic offense conviction.
Early Risers ‘Skills for Success’ Program A multi-component, high-intensity, competency-enhancement prevention program that targeted elementary school children (ages 6 to 10) who were at high risk for early development of conduct problems. This program is rated Promising. The program had a significant, positive impact on youths’ academic achievement and the discipline practices of their parents. However, the program did not have a significant effect on children’s aggression.
Ecologically Based Family Therapy (EBFT) for Substance-Abusing Runaway Adolescents A home-based, family preservation model that focuses on families who are in crisis because a youth has run away from home. The model targets 12- to 17-year-olds who are staying in a runaway shelter and are also dealing with substance abuse issues. The program is rated Promising. At fifteen months following the program, runaway youth in EBFT reported significantly less substance abuse.
Electronic Monitoring (Florida) Uses systems based on radio frequency or global positioning system (GPS) technology to monitor offenders’ locations and movements in community-based settings. The program is rated Promising. Compared with the control group on other forms of community supervision, the technology reduced the risk of failure to comply.
Empowerment Training for Abused Pregnant Chinese Women An empowerment training program designed to raise self-esteem, improve health, and reduce intimate partner violence among pregnant Chinese women who have been abused. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group showed a larger decline in intimate partner violence for some measures such as psychological abuse and minor physical violence; improved health-related quality of life for some measures; and lower levels of postnatal depression compared to the control group.
Engaging Moms Program A gender-specific, family-based intervention designed to help substance-abusing mothers participating in drug court maintain their parental rights. The program is rated Promising. Mothers who participated in the program showed equal or better improvement than those who received Intensive Case Management Services for all outcomes. Mothers who participated were more likely to have positive child welfare outcomes.
Equipping Youth to Help One Another (EQUIP) A multicomponent treatment program administered in juvenile correctional facilities for juvenile delinquents and other youth with conduct disorders. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group demonstrated larger gains in social skills, lower levels of institutional misconduct, and were less likely to recidivate than either of the control groups.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) A therapeutic approach designed to help individuals who have experienced traumatic stress to reprocess and adaptively store dysfunctionally stored traumatic memories. The program is rated Promising. There were significant pre–post gains on all outcome measures for the treatment and comparison group that received the active listening approach. However, the differential improvement on depression, anxiety, PTSD and impact resulted in greater pre–post changes for the treatment group.
Familias Unidas A Hispanic family-based program that aims to improve family functioning and prevent or reduce drug use and risky sexual behavior in youth. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group experienced a steady decline in behavior problems. Parents reported significantly greater improvements in family functioning. However, the intervention had no effects on academic achievement. The intervention did not prevent adolescent sexual activity but had a positive impact on safer sex practices.
Family Check-Up (FCU) for Adolescents A family-centered preventive intervention designed to assist families with high-risk adolescents, ages 11–17. The goal is to reduce the growth of adolescents’ problem behaviors and substance abuse; improve parenting skills; and reduce family conflict. The program is rated Promising. Students who received FCU services showed significantly less growth in antisocial behavior and substance use as well as a stable GPA from the start of middle school into high school.
Family Check-Up (FCU) for Children The program is a preventative, family-based intervention targeting families with young children who possess risk factors for child behavioral misconduct. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the intervention indirectly reduced child problem behavior via parental positive behavior support. More specifically, the intervention appeared to significantly increase levels of parents’ positive behavior support, which in turn significantly reduced children’s problem behavior.
Family Foundations A psycho-educational, skills-based program for first-time expectant parents delivered through childbirth education departments at local hospitals.
Family Solutions Program (FSP) A multi-family group intervention program comprised of 10 sessions targeting first-time offending youth.
Fast Track A comprehensive, long-term prevention program that aims to prevent chronic and severe conduct problems in high-risk children from 1st through 10th grades.
Forever Free The first comprehensive, in-prison, residential substance abuse treatment program designed for incarcerated women.
Front-End Diversion Initiative A preadjudication diversion program designed to divert juveniles with mental health needs away from the juvenile justice system through specialized supervision and case management.
Gang Reduction Program (Los Angeles, California) A comprehensive, multiyear initiative to reduce youth gang crime and violence through a combination of strategies. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with a significant decrease in the number of calls reporting shots fired and gang-related incidents in the target area. However, it did not have a significant effect on the number of calls reporting vandalism or gang or non-gang related serious violence incidents or on attendance levels of elementary, middle, or high schools.
Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) A school-based gang- and violence-prevention program that seeks to prevent violence and criminal activity, teach youths to avoid gang membership, and develop positive relationships between youth and law enforcement.
Global Positioning System for High-Risk Gang Offenders (California) Monitors and tracks the movement of parolees categorized as high risk for gang involvement or activity. The program is rated Promising. Parolees monitored by the GPS program had significantly less arrests for new offenses and violent offenses, but had higher odds of technical violations.
Guam Adult Drug Court A drug court diversion program that aims to help participants become clean and sober, improve their lives, and reduce their involvement with the criminal justice system. The program focuses on getting participants into treatment as soon as possible after arrest.
Gunshot Detection Technology (Hampton, VA) An acoustic surveillance system installed in high-crime areas that almost instantaneously alerts police to gunshots fired and provides precise information on the location of the shots.
Hamilton County (Ohio) Ignition Interlock Device Program The program required the installation of ignition interlock devices in motor vehicles to test the breath–alcohol level of drivers convicted of alcohol-related traffic violations. The device prohibits an alcohol-impaired driver from starting and operating the vehicle.
Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) A community supervision strategy for substance-abusing probationers, particularly for those who have long histories of drug use and involvement with the criminal justice system and who are considered at high risk of failing probation or returning to prison.
Healthy Families America A home visitation program targeting expecting and new parents, with children up to age 5, who are at risk of abusing or neglecting their children. It is designed to promote healthy families and children through a variety of services, including child development, access to health care, and parent education.
HUD’s HOPE VI Initiative (Milwaukee, WI) A federal initiative under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) that began in 1992 to eradicate severely distressed public housing and reconstruct sites with more livable housing.
I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) A school-based prevention program that trains children in generating a variety of solutions to problems, considering and understanding the possible consequences of those solutions, and recognizing thoughts, feelings, and motives that can lead to problem situations.
Idaho DUI Courts and Misdemeanor/DUI Courts The courts use a comprehensive approach to address the underlying causes of driving under the influence. The emphasis is primarily on altering the behavior of alcohol and/or drug dependent offenders.
Independence Youth Court A diversion program for young offenders. The primary goal of the program is to reduce the occurrence of juvenile crime by diverting youth from the traditional juvenile justice system and providing an alternative to formal processing.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Directed Patrol A policing program that uses a proactive directed patrol strategy to reduce firearms violence in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Family Group Conferencing Experiment A restorative justice diversion program for young, first-time juvenile offenders. The goal was to break the cycle of offending before it reached the stage of repeat offending.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Violence Reduction Partnership (IVRP) A policing program that targeted high-risk chronic offenders in order to reduce gun violence in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Indigent Defense for Homicide Cases (Philadelphia, Penn.) Indigent defense involves the constitutionally mandated free representation of individuals accused of crimes who are unable to afford private representation. Since 1993, every fifth murder case is sequentially assigned at the preliminary arraignment to be represented by attorneys from the Defender Association of Philadelphia.
Infant–Parent Psychotherapy A dyadic, relationship-based treatment for parents and infants that is designed to improve the parent–child relationship, by examining the insecurities that have developed in parents from negative experiences during their own childhoods.
InnerChange Freedom Initiative (Minnesota) A voluntary, faith-based prisoner reentry program that attempts to prepare inmates for reintegration into the community, employment, family, and other significant relationships through educational, values-based programming.
Interim Methadone Maintenance (IM) A daily treatment program where opiate-addicted adults on waiting lists for comprehensive treatment receive doses of methadone as well as emergency counseling, if needed.
Its Your Game... Keep It Real A health education program for 7th and 8th graders designed to delay sexual behavior and promote healthy dating relationships. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce emotional and physical dating violence victimization. However, the program did not have a significant effect on physical perpetration of dating violence.
Jefferson County Community Partnership (Birmingham, Ala.) Offers a wide array of services for youth with serious emotional disturbances to reduce youth's contact with the juvenile justice system. The services are accessible, community-based, individualized, culturally competent, and include an individual’s family in the planning and delivery of treatment. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce youths’ contact with the juvenile justice system.
Job Corps A national comprehensive residential, education, and job training program that targets economically disadvantaged youths between the ages of 16 and 24 years old.
Juvenile Drug Courts With Contingency Management and Multisystemic Therapy Incorporates contingency management protocols and multisystemic therapy into traditional juvenile drug court services to provide juveniles and families with additional engagement opportunities and support in order to reduce recidivism and substance abuse. The program is rated Promising. The program significantly reduced alcohol and poly drug use, positive drug urine screens, status offenses, and property offenses. The program had mixed effects on marijuana use and offenses against persons.
Kansas City (MO) Gun Experiment A police patrol project that was aimed at reducing gun violence, driveby shootings, and homicides. During the experimental period, extra police patrols were placed in gun crime "hot spots" in a target area of the city.
Kansas City (MO) Police Department Street Narcotics Unit A special unit to conduct police raids of crack houses in order to reduce crack-related crime and improve public order in Kansas City, Missouri.
KEEP SAFE Formerly known as Middle School Success, it is a multi-component intervention to prevent delinquency and substance abuse among girls in foster care transitioning from elementary to middle school. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with a significant decline in tobacco, marijuana, and overall substance use as well as delinquent behavior. However, there was no impact on girls’ alcohol use, association with delinquent peers, or overall delinquent behavior.
Keeper Boxes Also known as safer boxes, they are clear, polycarbonate boxes that are designed to protect so-called hot products in retail stores by placing selected merchandise in the sturdy lock boxes. The program is rated Promising. At the 13-week follow-up, shrinkage (or unexplained unit loss) significantly decreased by 52 percent while sales significantly increased by 69 percent in the experimental stores that used Keeper Boxes compared with the control stores that did not use Keeper Boxes.
keepin’ it REAL A culturally focused drug-prevention program designed to increase drug-resistance skills among middle school students.
Kids Club A multicomponent approach designed to improve behavioral and mental health in children exposed to intimate partner violence, by teaching them social skills and alternative attitudes toward violence, while providing empowerment and parenting training to their mothers.
KiVa Antibullying Program A school-based program delivered to elementary-aged students to reduce school bullying and victimization. The program was designed for national use in the Finnish comprehensive schools.
Little Village Gang Violence Reduction Project (Comprehensive Gang Model) A comprehensive, community-wide program designed to reduce serious violence in Chicago's gang-ridden Little Village neighborhood.
Maine Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts Court supervised, post-plea (but pre-final disposition) drug diversion programs that provide comprehensive community-based treatment services to juvenile offenders and their families.
Media Detective A media literacy education and substance use prevention program for third through fifth grade students.
Media Ready A media literacy education and substance use prevention program for sixth through eighth grades students.
Mendota Juvenile Treatment Center A residential facility that provides mental health treatment to serious and violent juvenile offenders in secured correctional institutions.
Mental Health Courts (Multisite) Postbooking jail diversion programs that aim to divert justice-involved individuals with serious mental illnesses out of the court system and into community-based treatment without jeopardizing public safety. This program is rated Promising. Mental health courts in four cities were shown to significantly reduce participants’ rates of arrests and incarceration days at the 18-month follow-up.
Methodist Home for Children's Value-Based Therapeutic Environment (VBTE) Model A nonpunitive treatment model that concentrates on teaching juvenile justice–involved youth about prosocial behaviors as alternatives to antisocial behaviors.
Michigan Model for Health A health education curriculum that targets K–12 students and includes age-appropriate lessons that focus on the most serious health challenges facing school-aged children.
Minneapolis Center for Victim-Offender Mediation A restorative justice program that provides juvenile offenders and their victims the opportunity to meet face-to-face in the presence of a mediator to discuss the offense and establish a plan for the future.
Minnesota Prison-based Chemical Dependency Treatment Prison-based chemical dependency treatment for offenders who are chemically abusive or dependent.
Minnesota Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment Program The program, provided by the Minnesota Department of Corrections, offers treatment, therapy, and transitional services to convicted male sex offenders in prison.
Minnesota Smoking Prevention Program A smoking prevention program for school-aged children that consists of an interactive curriculum of coursework designed to inform students about the harms of tobacco use.
Modified Therapeutic Community for Offenders with Mental Illness and Chemical Abuse (MICA) Disorders An adaptation of the therapeutic community models for use with offenders who have drug abuse problems and mental health disorders. This modified version uses a more flexible, more personalized, and less intense program that targets reductions in substance use and recidivism.
Movimiento Ascendencia (Pueblo, Colo.) A culturally focused, gender-specific program that provides young females, primarily Mexican American, alternatives to substance abuse and gang involvement. The program is rated Promising. The program significantly reduced self-reports of damaging property; stealing more than $50; and buying, selling, or holding stolen goods. However, it had no impact on self-esteem, grades in school, concealing of weapons, and stealing less than $50.
Multi-site Adult Drug Court Evaluation (MADCE) The MADCE was a 6-year national evaluation of the impacts made by adult drug courts, which are specialized and problem-solving courts for drug-involved offenders.
Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST–CAN) Targets youth and family functioning and parental behavior to reduce child physical abuse, neglect, and out-of-home placement while intervening in the home environment.
Multisystemic Therapy for Youth With Problem Sexual Behaviors (MST–PSB) An adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) aimed at adolescents who have committed sexual offenses and demonstrated other problem behaviors.
Multisystemic Therapy–Family Integrated Transitions (MST–FIT) The program provides integrated individual and family services to juvenile offenders who have co-occurring mental health and chemical dependency disorders during their transition from incarceration back into the community.
Multisystemic Therapy–Psychiatric Addresses externalizing symptoms, mental health symptoms, suicidal behaviors, and family relations while allowing youths with serious behavioral and psychiatric problems to spend more time in education and their home environment.
Naltrexone for Federal Probationers A medication used in the treatment of opioid addiction, which works by antagonizing opioid receptors and blocking the effects of opiates consumed by addicts (usually in the form of heroin).
Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) A psychosocial treatment that aims to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in traumatized refugee populations still living in dangerous situations (such as refugee camps).
Narrative Exposure Therapy for Traumatized Children and Adolescents (KidNET) An individual-level, psychosocial treatment that aims to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in traumatized refugee youth living in exile.
Nashville (Tenn.) Drug Market Intervention A policing program that used community mobilization, strategic planning, and pulling levers notifications to reduce drug dealing in a high-crime area in Nashville, Tenn.
Neighborhood Enrichment with Vision Involving Services, Treatment, and Supervision (NEW VISTAS) A comprehensive, neighborhood-based, family-focused service delivery model that employed wraparound services and case management for criminally involved families with identified substance abuse problems. The program was rated Promising. There was a significant decrease in youth alcohol/drug problems, out-of-home placements (both institutional and noninstitutional), and recidivism rates for participating youths who completed the program.
New Jersey Community Resource Centers Nonresidential multiservice centers that facilitate parolees’ successful reintegration back into the community by offering a combination of services and supervision. They serve as community-based alternative sanctions for technical parole violators or as a condition of parole on release from prison.
New Jersey Halfway Back Program A highly structured program that serves as an alternative to incarceration for technical parole violators or as a special condition of parole on release from prison in New Jersey. Halfway Back programs provide parolees with an environment that is halfway between prison and ordinary parole release.
NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol A structured interview protocol for professionals conducting forensic interviews with suspected child sexual abuse victims.
Nutritional Supplements for Young Adult Prisoners An effort that provided nutritional supplements to young adult prisoners to decrease negative, antisocial behaviors.
Operation Burglary Countdown A community-based program to reduce residential burglary in targeted hotspot areas.
Operation Ceasefire: Hollenbeck Initiative A policing initiative that targeted specific dangerous gangs using aggressive enforcement to reduce gun violence in the Hollenbeck area of Los Angeles, Calif.
Operation Hardcore (Los Angeles, CA) A judicial intervention implemented to improve the prosecution of gang-related crimes. Selective prosecution through the use of specialized units designed to effectively convict gang members associated with gang-related crimes.
Operation Impact (Newark, New Jersey) A saturation foot-patrol initiative implemented in Newark, New Jersey, in 2008.
Operation New Hope Formerly Lifeskills ’95, the program is a curriculum-based aftercare treatment program designed to help chronic, high-risk juvenile offenders reintegrate back into the community after they are released from secure confinement.
Operation Safe Streets (Philadelphia, Pa.) A problem-oriented policing program targeted at high-crime areas and drug corners to prevent violent and drug-related crime.
Örebro Prevention Program A Swedish alcohol and delinquency prevention program designed to decrease underage drinking and delinquency by increasing parents’ restrictive and prohibitory attitudes toward these behaviors.
Oregon Drug Courts Courts that provide comprehensive management of drug offenders—through increased treatment, monitoring, and interactions with the court judge—to achieve reductions in reoffending and better drug treatment outcomes for substance users.
Ottawa County (Mich.) Sobriety Court Program A driving under the influence (DUI) court program in western Michigan that has three main goals: diverting offenders from jail, eliminating substance use, and reducing recidivism of offenders that live within the court’s jurisdiction.
Parenting with Love and Limits® A program that combines group therapy and family therapy to treat adolescents ages 10–18 with the primary diagnosis of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder.
PeaceBuilders A school-based violence prevention program designed to reduce aggression and improve social competence.
Peers Making Peace A peer-mediation program designed to handle conflicts both in and out of school and to help maintain drug-free schools.
Philadelphia (Pa.) Low-Intensity Community Supervision Experiment An experiment conducted to examine the effects of lowering the intensity of community supervision with low-risk offenders in an urban community.
Phoenix (Ariz.) Repeat Offender Program A postarrest case-management program that used cooperation between police and prosecutors to increase the likelihood that high-risk chronic offenders would be convicted and incarcerated.
Positive Youth Development Program (Connecticut) A school-based prevention program that taught students cognitive, behavioral, and affective skills and encouraged them to apply these skills when dealing with daily challenges, problems, and decisions.
Preventing Parolee Crime Program (PPCP) A multidimensional, parole-based reintegration program that aims to reduce parolees’ crime and reincarceration by providing them with services that can facilitate a successful reintegration into society following release from prison.
Prevention of Shoplifting A crime prevention program designed to assess the effect of store redesign, electronic tagging, and the deployment of uniformed guards on the reduction of shoplifting in high-theft stores.
Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) The program is a preventative, group-based training intervention for parents and kindergarten teachers of young children (ages 3–6) with externalizing problem behaviors. The program seeks to reduce externalizing problem behaviors and ultimately prevent delinquency later in life. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the program moderately reduced child externalizing problem behaviors, based on questionnaires completed by mothers and teachers.
Preventive Treatment Program A prevention program aimed at disruptive kindergarten boys and their parents, with the goal of reducing short- and long-term antisocial behavior. The program is rated Promising. There were some positive effects of the program found in the short term, but the effects seemed to disappear by the time the boys were 15 years old. However, positive effects were found by the time the boys were 24 years old, and mixed effects were shown through the time the boys were 28 years old.
Prison-Initiated Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program that offers methadone maintenance to heroin-addicted prisoners and later provides referrals to community-based treatment programs to encourage their continued treatment during reentry.
Problem-Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places (Jersey City, NJ) A focused policing strategy intended to reduce violent crime in high-crime locations in Jersey City, NJ, through the modification of specific characteristics and situations that promote violence in problem places.
Project EX A school-based tobacco cessation program for high school youths ages 14–19.
Project Exile A crime reduction strategy in Richmond, Virginia implemented to deter former and would-be offenders from carrying and using firearms, with an overall goal of reducing firearm-related homicides. The project is rated Promising. Firearm-related homicides decreased significantly in the target area, compared with other U.S. cities where the program was not implemented.
Project Link An intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women.
Project Northland A school and community intervention that targets children at an early age to prevent and reduce underage alcohol use.
Project Safe Neighborhoods (Chicago) A comprehensive antiviolence initiative that uses collaborative strategies to alter perceived costs and benefits of gun violence, intended to reduce illegal gun offending among exoffenders.
Project Support A program designed to provide support to battered mothers and reduce conduct problems in their children.
Project Toward No Tobacco Use (Project TNT) A comprehensive, classroom-based curriculum designed to prevent or reduce tobacco use in fifth through ninth grade youths.
Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) An interactive school-based program designed to help high school youths resist substance use.
Project Venture An outdoor experiential prevention program for at-risk American Indian youth that concentrates on American Indian cultural values to promote prosocial development and avoidance of alcohol and other drugs.
Public Surveillance Cameras (Baltimore, Maryland) Public surveillance systems include a network of cameras and components for monitoring, recording, and transmitting video images. The ultimate goal of installing public surveillance cameras throughout the city of Baltimore, Md., was to reduce the historically high levels of crime in the city.
Raising Healthy Children A comprehensive and multifaceted school-based preventive intervention that concentrates on promoting positive youth development by using a social developmental approach to target risk and protective factors.
Regulation of Built-In Home Security (Netherlands) In the Netherlands, a large-scale government intervention led to the passage of a regulation requiring built-in home security in all newly constructed homes.
Residential Student Assistance Program (RSAP) A substance abuse intervention program developed for high-risk adolescents living in residential facilities.
Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (New York City) A universal, school-based intervention for elementary school students that promotes violence prevention as well as positive social and emotional learning.
Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP) A school-based program designed to provide conflict-resolution strategies and skills to prevent violence to students in middle and junior high schools.
Richmond (CA) Comprehensive Homicide Initiative A problem-oriented policing program that offered a broad collection of enforcement and non-enforcement strategies, including a middle school mentoring program, designed to reduce homicide in Richmond, California. This program is rated Promising. It had a significant impact on homicide reduction in Richmond.
Rochester Resilience Project (RRP) A school-based intervention to improve the social-emotional and behavioral skills of young children (K – 3rd grade) at risk for mental health disorders and substance abuse. This program is rated Promising. The program had a significant, positive effect on measures of children’s task orientation, behavior control, assertiveness, and peer social skills. The program was also associated with a significant decline in the average numbers of suspensions and office disciplinary referrals.
Rockford Pulling Levers Drug Market Intervention A problem-oriented policing strategy that aims to combat drug markets and the problems associated with them, in a high- crime neighborhood, through a deterrence-based, pulling levers framework. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce nonviolent offenses in the target area, but not violent offenses.
Rural Educational Achievement Project (REAP) A comprehensive, multilevel prevention program designed to place fourth graders in three different programs that teach competencies and skills based on students’ level of assessed risk.
Safe Street Teams (Boston, MA) A place-based, problem-oriented policing strategy implemented by the Boston (Massachusetts) Police Department in response to a sudden increase in violent index crimes.
Safer Cities Initiative A place-based policing intervention that targeted crime and disorder associated with homeless encampments in Los Angeles, Calif.
San Francisco (Calif.) Behavioral Health Court A mental health court that aims to reduce recidivism of criminal defendants who suffer from serious mental illness. The court connects defendants with community treatment services and considers the defendant’s mental illness and severity of the offense in disposition decisions.
San Juan County (N.M.) DWI First Offenders Program A program for offenders arrested for the first time for driving while intoxicated (DWI) that aims to reduce DWI rearrest rates.
Schenectady Public Surveillance Project A crime prevention program seeking to impact crime and disorder through the installation of public surveillance cameras in one medium-sized city in the northeastern United States. The program is rated Promising. The installation of cameras led to significant reductions in total crime and total disorder in the target area. However, no significant impact was found on violent crime or property crime.
School-Based Mentoring Program for At-Risk Middle School Youth Offered one-to-one mentoring program to at-risk students in 7th to 9th grades in an urban middle school setting to reduce their discipline referrals and school absences and to improve their school connectedness. This program is rated Promising. The program was associated with a significant decline in the number of office disciplinary referrals and a significant increase in school connectedness. However, the program had no significant impact on unexcused absences.
Secured by Design, West Yorkshire (England) A program that encourages housing developers to design out crime at the planning stage or concept stage.
Sexual Abuse: Family Education and Treatment Program (SAFE–T) A specialized, community-based program that provides sexual abuse–specific assessment, treatment, consultation, and long-term support to adolescent sexual offenders and their families.
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program (Albuquerque, N.M.) The program aims to provide specialized and coordinated services to victims of sexual assault during their first contact with the health care environment.
Shifting Boundaries A two-part intervention designed to reduce dating violence and sexual harassment among middle school students by highlighting the consequences of this behavior for perpetrators and by increasing faculty surveillance of unsafe areas within the given school.
SMART Leaders A 2-year booster program that follows from Stay SMART (for Skills, Mastery, And Resistance Training) which teaches a broad spectrum of social and personal competence skills to help youths identify and resist peer and other social pressures to smoke, drink, and engage in sexual activity.
Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program A prevention program targeted at preventing violence, substance abuse, and related problem behaviors through developing an individual's social and decision-making skills.
South Dakota’s 24/7 Sobriety Project The program seeks to reduce the recidivism of offenders previously convicted of driving while under the influence of alcohol (DUI) through intensive testing and monitoring of drug and alcohol consumption. The main goal is to encourage sobriety of offenders 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. The program is rated Promising. The program led to significant reduction in repeat DUI and domestic violence arrests, but did not impact first-time DUI arrests or traffic crashes.
Spit Tobacco Intervention for Athletes An education program about the dangers of addiction and long-term use of using spit (smokeless) tobacco. It is targeted at young male athletes—especially baseball players—who use or are at risk of using spit tobacco.
Staff Training Aimed at Reducing Rearrest (STARR) A training program for federal community supervision officers providing direct service to clients (i.e., offenders under supervision). The goal is to improve one-on-one officer–client interactions to reduce risk and thereby client recidivism.
Staying Connected with Your Teen A universal prevention program that targets substance abuse and problem behavior in adolescents by incorporating parent, youth, and family components into its curriculum.
STEP (School Transitional Environment Program) A school organizational change initiative that seeks to decrease student anonymity and problem behavior, increase accountability, and enhance students’ ability to learn school rules and expectations by improving the transitional learning environment in early middle school and junior high school years.
Stewards of Children An adult-focused child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention training program. The training aims to educate adults (specifically child care professionals) to prevent, recognize, and react responsibly to CSA.
Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS) A job training program for probation officers to help them apply the risk–need–responsivity (RNR) model with probationers to reduce recidivism.
Structured Decision Making (SDM) A decision support system that provides objective and structured assessments with safety- and risk-based service recommendations to inform case workers’ decisions in cases of child abuse and neglect. The goal is to reduce subsequent abuse and neglect of children, and expedite permanency for children who have been removed from home.
Success for Kids An afterschool program that sought to build resilience in children by teaching them to access inner resources and build positive connections with others.
Success in Stages® Program An anti-bullying program for elementary, middle, and high school students that used Transtheoretical-based prevention techniques to create a safe and positive learning environment.
Syracuse Family Development Research Program (FDRP) Comprehensive early childhood program aimed to develop child and family functioning through home visitation, parent training, and individualized day care. The program sought to improve children’s cognitive skills and prevent juvenile delinquency.
Taking Charge A solution-focused, cognitive-behavioral brief group intervention designed to help pregnant and parenting female students stay in school.
Target Hardening in Northumbria (England) A program to install security devices in residential properties to reduce burglary.
Targeted Gun Law Messaging A mail campaign intended to deter illegal firearm transactions in Los Angeles, Calif. using a letter outlining the regulations and laws surrounding firearm ownership.
Targeted Interventions for Corrections (TIC) Consists of six brief life-skill interventions to be used in a variety of correctional-based settings. The interventions address the core aspects of addiction treatment and recovery. The program is rated Promising. TIC significantly impacted measures of cognitive changes–knowledge, attitude, and psychological functioning–except criminal thinking.
TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling for Substance Users A cognitive technique for incorporating graphic visualization tools (“maps”) into the counseling process.
Teaching Students to Be Peacemakers A school-based conflict resolution program aimed at teaching students to manage their conflicts through negotiation and mediation.
Teenage Health Teaching Modules A comprehensive school health curriculum for grades 6 to 12. By addressing various health issues, the curriculum aims to positively affect student health knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behaviors.
The Abuse Assessment (The Abuse Screen) An abuse assessment screening tool for medical staff to aid in the detection and referral of abuse in pregnant women.
The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project A school-based prevention program targeting middle and high school students between the ages of 12 and 16, and designed to increase peer support, improve conflict-resolution skills, and alter behavioral norms concerning aggression and violence.
The Peacemakers Program A school-based violence reduction intervention for grades 4 through 8. The program had two primary objectives: (1) prevent violence; and (2) improve interpersonal behavior among youth.
The truth® Campaign A national smoking prevention campaign that uses advertisements with anti-tobacco messages targeted at youths ages 12 to 17 who are most at risk of smoking.
Thinking for a Change A cognitive–behavioral curriculum developed by the National Institute of Corrections that concentrates on changing the criminogenic thinking of offenders.
Too Good for Drugs - Middle School A school-based drug prevention program designed to reduce students’ intention to use alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, while promoting prosocial attitudes, skills, and behaviors.
Too Good for Violence A school-based violence prevention and character education program designed to improve student behavior and minimize aggression.
Utah Juvenile Drug Courts Offers substance abuse treatment and programming for juveniles in an effort to reduce participants’ alcohol, drug and delinquency offenses. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce delinquency and criminal offenses, but not alcohol and other drug offenses.
West Midlands (England) High-Crime-Causing Users (HCCU) An intensive community-based partnership between police and treatment providers in West Midlands that provided enhanced delivery and coordinated efforts and resources to high-risk offenders to reduce their offending behavior. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the average number of arrests for participants.
WITS Primary Program A community-based, schoolwide intervention aimed at children in grades 1 through 3 that targets socially competent behaviors and risks for peer victimization. The program was rated Promising. The program was shown to have significant positive effects on physical and relational victimization and social competence, but not on social responsibility or physical aggression.
Women’s Health CoOp (Pretoria, South Africa) A woman-focused HIV intervention designed to reduce sex risk behavior, substance use, and victimization among at-risk and underserved women, including female sex workers and drug users, in Pretoria, South Africa.
Woodrock Youth Development Program A combination of intervention strategies, including peer mentoring and support systems, to prevent substance abuse among at-risk and racially diverse youth. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with significantly less drug use among both younger and older youth in the program.
Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program® (TOP®) A school-based program to prevent school failure and teen pregnancy by engaging teens for at least 9 months in curriculum-guided discussion and community service learning.
All Stars™ All Stars™ is a character-based approach to preventing high-risk behaviors such as substance use, violence, and premature sexual activity in teens ages 11 to 15. The program is rated No Effects. The program evaluation found no statistical significance between the control and experiment group for violence, substance abuse or sexual activity.
Brief Instrumental School-Based Mentoring Program A school-based intervention designed for at-risk middle school students that aims to improve academic performance, promote school connectedness, and life satisfaction and to decrease disciplinary actions. This program is rated as No Effects. The program did not significantly affect students’ English, reading, or science grades; measures of teacher or school connectedness; tardiness; or school absences. However, the program significantly increased students’ math grades and life satisfaction.
California’s Repeat Offender Prevention Program (ROPP) An intensive program targeting young offenders at high risk of becoming chronic delinquents using intensive supervision and wraparound services to address school behavior, substance use, and high-risk behaviors. The program is rated No Effects. The control and treatment group showed no statistically significant differences for warrants and days in custody, new offenses or education outcomes.
Camera Use to Prevent Crime in Commuter Parking Facilities (Washington, D.C.) A crime prevention strategy designed to reduce crime in Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority parking facilities through the introduction of digital cameras at the exits of the parking facilities to capture images of patrons’ license plates as they exited the facility. The program is rated as No Effects. Crime rates (including car-related, property, and violent crimes) remained at pre-camera levels in parking facilities.
CASASTART A community-based, intensive case management model that aims to prevent drug use and delinquency among high-risk adolescents, ages 11 to 13. This program is rated No Effects. It had a few significant effects on behavioral outcomes, but did not have a significant effect on youths’ drug use or involvement in property crime. An evaluation showed negative effects of the program on prevalence and frequency behavioral measures for female participants.
CHOICE A voluntary afterschool program for middle school aged youths to inform them about substance use and prevent them from starting or continuing alcohol use. The program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have some effect on delaying the initiation of alcohol use but no effect on other measures of past or future alcohol use.
Comer’s School Development Program A school-based intervention that focuses on improving school climate and student achievement. The program is rated No Effects. The evidence base shows that the program had significant impacts on student reports of lack of anger and acting out. However, there were mixed results on disapproval of misbehavior and substance use, and no significant differences found for petty misbehaviors or friends’ problem behaviors.
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol A community organizing program designed to reduce youth access to alcohol by changing community and law enforcement policies, attitudes, and practices, and by targeting commercial and noncommercial availability of alcohol to underage drinkers. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found no significant impact on youth alcohol use, alcohol sales, or access to alcohol between the treatment and control groups.
Culturally Focused Batterer Counseling (Pittsburgh, PA) A cognitive–behavioral counseling program specifically designed for African American men arrested for domestic violence. The program is rated No Effects. The program had no significant impact on program completion or self-reported reassault rates. The study showed that men who participated in the culturally focused counseling option were twice as likely as men who participated in the racially mixed counseling option to be rearrested for domestic violence.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) A school-based drug use prevention program taught by police officers, starting in the sixth grade and extending through the senior year of high school. The program is rated No Effects. There was no statistically significant impact on drug use or attitude towards drug use compared with the comparison group.
Ending Violence A school-based program, taught over 3 school days by attorneys, in which students learn warning signs for dating violence and how the law works in relation to domestic violence. This program is rated No Effects. Results were mixed for all items except help-seeking and knowledge about dating violence and the law, in which the treatment group exhibited positive significant differences compared with the control group.
Families Facing the Future An intensive family program for parents in methadone treatment and their children that combines relapse prevention, parenting skills training and home-based case management services. The program is rated No Effects. Although studies evaluating the effectiveness of the program on the behaviors of drug-using parents and their children showed some positive findings, the overall preponderance of evidence suggested null effects.
Gang Reduction Program (Richmond, VA) A comprehensive, multiyear initiative to reduce gang crime and violence among youth through a combination of strategies. This program is rated No Effects. The program did not have a significant effect on drug-related incidents or offenses, serious violent incidents or offenses, or school dropout rates in the target area. Additionally, the program did not have a significant effect on gang-related incidents, school attendance, or graduation rates in the target area.
Helping Women Recover Program (in a Drug Court Setting) A gender-responsive program designed to treat drug-addicted female offenders in a drug court setting. The program intends to specifically address the needs of female addicts and treat symptoms identified as distinct to female pathways to criminality and drug involvement. This program is rated No Effects. Female offenders assigned to gender-specific treatment did not display any significant differences in number of arrests and reports of drug use than those assigned to mixed-gender treatment.
Hot Spots Policing (Jacksonville, FL) A geographically focused policing strategy intended to reduce violent crime in high-crime areas of Jacksonville, Florida, using problem-oriented policing and directed patrol techniques.
JOBSTART A school and community-based program designed to increase academic skills and job placement among economically disadvantaged youths with poor reading skills and low job prospects.
Juvenile Transfer to Adult Court (Pennsylvania) Transfer of serious and violent juveniles from juvenile court to adult court based on criteria, such as age, seriousness of offense, and use of a deadly weapon. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that transferring juveniles to adult court had no impact on measures of arrests.
Kansas Senate Bill 123 (Alternative Sentencing Policy for Non-Violent Drug Possession Offenders) The Kansas state Senate Bill established a program that provided mandatory community-based drug treatment for nonviolent offenders convicted of a preliminary offense for drug possession.
Keep Cool...Start at School A social, cognitive–behavioral treatment program that targeted children ages 8 to 12 who exhibited disruptive or aggressive behavior and conduct disorder, aiming to reduce the occurrence of these behaviors. Overall, the evidence from the evaluation found that students who participated in the intervention did not differ significantly from those students in the waitlist control group on measures of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and externalization of behaviors.
License Plate Recognition Technology (as a Crime Deterrent) A vehicle-scanning device deployed by law enforcement to detect wanted vehicles (such as those reported stolen or missing).
Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence (SFA) A multicomponent school-based life skills training curriculum that teaches behavioral and social techniques for middle school students to help resist alcohol and drug use.
Mandatory–Random Student Drug Testing Programs that are designed to supplement existing school-based prevention interventions and have two primary goals: 1) deter students from substance use and 2) identify students with substance use problems and refer them to counseling or treatment services.
Minnesota’s Affordable Homes Program A prison work crew program designed to increase the availability of affordable low-income housing while training inmates in construction-industry-specific occupational skills. The program is rated No Effects. The program had some significant effect on program participants’ likelihood of gaining employment in the construction field following release from prison. However, there were no significant effects on gaining employment in other fields, rearrests, reconvictions, and reincarceration.
Motivational Interviewing for Juvenile Substance Abuse A person-centered counseling method that is designed to address the problem of ambivalence and encourage the motivation for behavioral change.
Moving to Opportunity Demonstration Program A housing mobility demonstration program intended to help move families from high-poverty public housing to low-poverty private housing to improve their lives. This program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have no significant long-term effects on violent, property, drug, or general crime arrests.
Multimodal Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Program A community-based prisoner reentry program that provides substance abuse treatment to medium- to high-risk offenders placed on 24-month community correctional supervision, with the aim of reducing relapse, rearrest, and reincarceration in program participants.
National Guard ChalleNGe Program An intensive residential program that provides training and services, including structured one-on-one mentoring, to at-risk youth (ages 16 to 18 years). This program is rated No Effects. The program had a significant, positive impact on employment and GED attainment among participating youth as compared with control group youth. However, the program had no significant effect on youths’ frequency of arrests, marijuana or other illegal drug use, delinquent behavior, or psychological distress.
New South Wales (Australia) Prison Methadone Maintenance Program The goals of the prison methadone program are to reduce recidivism, prevent the spread of blood-borne viral infections (HIV and hepatitis) in prison, and encourage continuation of treatment in the community following release from prison.
Parent-Child Development Center A primary prevention parent training program targeting low-income minority families with children, between 2 months and 3 years of age, to reduce educational failure and improve child behavior.
Parents as Teachers An early childhood, parent education, and family support program serving families from pregnancy until their children enter kindergarten.
Peer Group Connection (PGC) Program A high school transition program that targets 9th-grade students in urban high schools who are at risk of dropping out. The goal is to improve high school graduation rates among participating youths by having junior and senior high school students serve as peer mentors. This program is rated No Effects since the program did not improve students’ high school graduation rates overall. However, a significant positive effect on the graduation rate among male students only was detected.
Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (PADOC) Therapeutic Community A prison-based drug treatment program based on the principles of therapeutic communities with the overall goal of reducing offenders’ risk of drug relapse and recidivism once they return to the community. The program is rated No Effects. The program did not significantly impact participants’ rates of rearrests or drug relapse, and only had a small effect on reincarceration rates.
Phoenix (Arizona) Homicide Clearance Project The program's primary goal was to improve homicide clearance rates by increasing investigative time through the transfer of four crime scene specialists to the homicide unit.
Post-Rape Video Intervention A program developed as an early postrape intervention to help reduce both the distress associated with a forensic rape examination and the increased risk that rape victims have of developing later psychopathology and substance use.
Private Prison Confinement (Minnesota) Because of bed shortages created by an increase in the prison population in Minnesota in the first few years following 2000, eligible male inmates were transferred to a private prison facility to serve their time. The program was rated No Effects. Confinement in the private prison resulted in significant increases in the risk of rearrest and reconviction of inmates, and made no significant impact on reincarceration for a new offense or revocation for a technical violation.
Probation Case Management (San Francisco, Calif.) A case management intervention for drug-involved women offenders that incorporated elements of substance abuse treatment, intensive supervision probation, and case management.
Project ALERT A school-based program for seventh and eighth graders that targets substance use beliefs and behaviors.
Project Greenlight An institution-based transitional services demonstration program that was designed to be a short, intensive intervention that could serve a greater number of offenders with reentry services at a lower cost. However, an outcome evaluation found that Project Greenlight actually had negative effects on program participants.
Project PATHE (Positive Action Through Holistic Education) A school-wide program designed to target and engage at risk youth in positive behaviors and decrease delinquency.
Public School Choice Lottery (Charlotte–Mecklenburg, N.C., School District) An open-enrollment school choice plan in the Charlotte–Mecklenburg, N.C., School District designed to offer slots at oversubscribed schools through a lottery-based system. The program is rated No Effects. Winning the lottery did not significantly impact nontraffic arrests, felony arrests, drug felonies, property felonies, or violent felonies. While winning the lottery impacted middle school students in terms of fewer total days incarcerated, no impact was found for high school students.
Reconnecting Youth A school-based prevention program that targets underachieving students at risk of dropping out. However, a randomized controlled trial of Reconnecting Youth found there were some negative effects on program participants at the 6-month follow-up.
Red Hook Community Justice Center A problem-solving community court that seeks to prevent crime by addressing its underlying causes. The program was rated No Effects. The program did not appear to impact recidivism rates for drug treatment participants and juvenile defendants, and only had a small effect on recidivism rates for criminal-court misdemeanor defendants.
Rochester (N.Y.) Domestic Violence Court Judicial Monitoring A program designed to provide judicial monitoring by the court, which involved frequent court appearances by the offender before a judge. The goal was to ensure compliance with program requirements and other court orders, and deter future violence and re-abuse of victims.
SafERteens A 35-minute therapy session delivered to adolescents who receive care in emergency rooms; it is designed to reduce subsequent violent behavior and alcohol use.
SCARE Program A school-based anger and aggression management program for adolescents, especially those at risk for academic and behavioral problems. The primary goals of the program are to teach at-risk youth about emotions, including anger and aggression, and to help them recognize alternatives to violent behavior and aggressive responses.
Second Responders Program (Redlands, CA) Developed to help victims of repeat incidents of family violence (including intimate partner abuse, abuse within families or households, and elder abuse), the program model enlists second responders to make home visits to try to help victims find long-term solutions to recurring abuse.
Sembrando Salud A culturally sensitive, community-based tobacco- and alcohol-use prevention program specifically adapted for migrant Hispanic adolescents and their families.
Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) A collaborative Federal effort that concentrated on improving criminal justice, employment, education, health, and housing outcomes of adult and juvenile offenders upon their release from incarceration.
Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program A rape prevention program for college students, which was designed to teach about the prevalence of sexual assault, distinguish between rape myths and facts, identify risky situations, and teach techniques that women can use in a risky situation. The program was rated No Effects. The program had a small effect on self-efficacy, and a small mixed-effect on self-protective dating behaviors, but did not impact sexual victimization, sexual aggression, attitudes toward women, or rape empathy.
SMART Team A multimedia software program that engages young teenagers in learning new skills to resolve conflicts and avoid violence.
STARS (Start Taking Alcohol Risks Seriously) for Families A health promotion program for preventing alcohol use among at-risk middle and junior high school youths, aiming to postpone alcohol use until adulthood.
Strengthening Families Program A parenting and family skills training program for high-risk families with children ages 3–16 that aims to reduce substance use and behavior problems during adolescence.
Supporting Adolescents with Guidance and Employment (SAGE) A violence prevention program targeted at African American male adolescents living in Durham, N.C. which sought to reduce the disproportionate rate of violence among this population through a multifaceted community-based approach, including an Afrocentric guidance and instructional approach with a mentoring aspect. This program is rated No Effects. The program did not have a significant impact on participating youths’ problem, violent, or other-risky behaviors.
Taking Charge of Your Life A school-based universal substance abuse prevention program targeted toward middle school youths. However, an outcome evaluation found that the program had negative effects on student participants.
Tax Compliance Experiment (Israel) A Tax Compliance Experiment was conducted in Israel and sought to test whether taxpayer compliance could be increased by mailing two different types of letters to incorporated taxpayers: a deterrent letter or moral persuasive letter. The program is rated No Effects. The deterrence and moral persuasion approach did not significantly impact corporations’ likelihood of paying taxes, accurately reporting gross sales, or accurately reporting tax deductions.
The GREAT School Program A school-based intervention to promote problem-solving skills, self-efficacy for nonviolence, and goals and strategies supporting nonviolence. The program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have no effect on measures of aggression and nonviolent behaviors.
The Pathways Home Foster Care Reunification Intervention A preventive intervention intended to successfully reunite children returning home to their parents after their first stay in foster care.
Too Good for Drugs - Elementary School A school-based drug prevention program designed to reduce students’ intention to use alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, while promoting prosocial attitudes, skills, and behaviors.
Transitional Case Management A strengths-based case management intervention that provided expanded case management services during an inmate’s transition from incarceration to the community.
Tribes An intensive universal prevention strategy for elementary students that aims to use a positive learning environment to build resiliency, improve social skills, and enhance academic achievement in children. The program in general had no effects on children's behavior when boys and girls were assessed as a group, but when girls were considered separately, the program had significant negative effects on girls' behavior and academic performance.
Weed and Seed (Miami, Fla.) A community-based approach to reducing and preventing crime while revitalizing the community.
Youth-Nominated Support Team-Version II (YST-II) Standard treatments for suicidal adolescents (ages 13-17) were supplemented with social support from caring adults. The goal was to reduce youths’ suicidal ideations, depression severity, and feelings of hopelessness and to improve their mood-related adaptive functioning. This program is rated No Effects. The program had no significant impact on participants’ suicidal ideation, depression, negative attitudes about the future, or parent-reported functional impairment.