National Institute of Justice National Institute of Justice. Research. Development. Evaluation. Office of Justice Programs
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Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach An outpatient program targeting 13 to 25 year olds that aims to replace activities supporting alcohol and drug use with positive behaviors that support recovery. The program is rated Effective. Participants were more likely to seek out and continue care services, abstain from substance use (in particular, marijuana), had less reported depression and internalized behaviors problems, and more social stability (i.e., working, receiving education, in a home or shelter, or receiving medical care).
Adolescent Diversion Project (Michigan State University) A strengths-based, advocacy oriented program that diverts arrested youth from formal processing in the juvenile justice system and provides them community-based services. This program is rated Effective. The program was associated with a significant reduction in the rates of official delinquency of participating juveniles as compared to juveniles formally processed in the system. However, the program did not significantly affect youths’ self-reported delinquency.
Adults in the Making (AIM) A family-centered preventive intervention designed to enhance the family protective process and self-regulatory competence to deter escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems. The program is rated Effective. Overall, the preponderance of evidence indicates that the program has a positive impact on deterring the use of alcohol, drugs, and involvement in other risky behaviors among participants.
Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) A multidimensional psychoeducational intervention designed to promote prosocial behavior in chronically aggressive and violent adolescents using techniques to develop social skills, emotional control, and moral reasoning. The program is rated Effective. Among adolescents taking part in the intervention there was a statistically significant reduction in felony recidivism, improved social skills and a reduction in problem behavior among participants.
Alley-Gating in Liverpool (England) Alley-gating involves placing hardwearing, lockable gates to restrict access of an alley to local residents with the aim of reducing opportunities for potential offenders. The program is rated Effective. The analysis found that the greater the “intensity” of the intervention (i.e., the number of gates fitted, blocks protected, or houses protected), the larger the reduction in burglary, and spatial diffusion was observed in 4 out of seven buffer zones along with some tactical displacement.
Assisted Outpatient Treatment (AOT) Also known as outpatient commitment, it is a civil legal procedure whereby a judge can order an individual with a serious mental illness to follow a court-ordered treatment plan while living in the community. The program is rated Effective. The study found participants had lower odds of arrest, arrest for violent behavior, and a reduction in overall violent behavior if they received longer treatment and more outpatient community visits.
Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse A family-based treatment approach for substance- and alcohol-abusing couples and their families. The program is rated Effective. At follow-up, patients reported significant reductions in substance use, higher marital adjustment test scores, relationship satisfaction, and decreased drinking rates than the individual-based treatment group.
Better Futures Program A program designed to help young people in foster care with serious mental health challenges prepare for postsecondary education. The program is rated Effective. Youths who received the intervention had significant improvements on self-determination, mental health empowerment, transition planning, career self-efficacy, hope, barriers to education, postsecondary preparation, and transition planning, but not on quality of life or mental health recovery.
Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) Community-Based Mentoring (CBM) Program Offers one-to-one mentoring in a community setting for at-risk youth between the ages of 6 and 18. This program is rated Effective. It was associated with a significant reduction in initiating drug and alcohol use and antisocial behavior among mentored youth. Also, mentored youth had significantly better relationships with parents and emotional support among peers. The program, however, did not have a significant effect on youths’ academic performance (grades and absences) or self-worth.
Biting Back in Huddersfield (England) A program designed to reduce repeat victimization in domestic burglary and thefts from cars. The program is rated Effective. There was a greater decrease in recorded and repeats crime than the surrounding areas. There was an increase in satisfaction with police services and no evidence of displaced crime.
Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention of College Students (BASICS) A preventive intervention for college students designed to help students make better decisions about using alcohol. The program is rated Effective. The intervention group significantly reduced the negative consequences related to drinking, lowered drinking quantities over the 4-year period, and had significantly fewer drinks per weekend than the control group. There were no significant differences in the quantities of alcohol consumed during the week between the two groups.
Bronx (NY) Treatment Court An alternative to probation and confinement for first-time nonviolent felony drug offenders. The program is rated Effective. The study found a significant reduction in postarrest recidivism. Recidivism was found to be more common during the in-program period than post-program.
Brooklyn (NY) Treatment Court A drug court that offers substance abuse treatment for nonviolent felony and misdemeanor drug offenders. The program is rated Effective. The study found a reduction in postarrest recidivism and a significantly lower probability of reconviction than the comparison group.
Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment Used in the treatment of patients with opioid dependence to alleviate withdrawal symptoms, suppress opiate effects and cravings, and decrease the risk of overdose. The program is rated Effective. The experimental group had more days of participation, treatment retention, decreased drug use, improved well-being and mental health. Participants had significantly reduced opiate cravings.
Career Academy A school within a school that uses a multifaceted approach to foster academic success, mental and emotional health, and labor market success. The program is rated Effective. The program had a significant, positive effect on earnings among young men in the Academy group. However, there was no significant effect on young women’s labor market outcomes or on all participating youths’ high school completion rate, post-secondary education or attainment, or social adjustment outcomes.
Checkpoint Tennessee A year-long statewide sobriety checkpoint program in Tennessee intended to combat impaired driving and reduce alcohol-related car crashes. The program is rated Effective. Researchers observed a 20.4 percent reduction over the projected number of drunk-driving fatal crashes that would have occurred with no intervention. There was a statistically significant reduction in nighttime single-vehicle injury crashes after the start of the program, positive public opinion and awareness of the program.
Children with Problematic Sexual Behavior–Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (PSB–CBT) This outpatient treatment program’s primary goal is to reduce sexual behavior problems among school-age children, through the provision of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychoeducational, and supportive services to children and families. This program is rated Effective. Compared to youths in play therapy, youths in the CBT for sexual behavior problems group had significantly fewer sexual offenses. There was no significant difference in the rate of non-sexual offenses between these groups.
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) A cognitive and behavioral therapy group intervention for reducing children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression caused by exposure to violence. The program is rated Effective. The study found significantly lower scores of self-reported PTSD, depressive symptoms and psychosocial dysfunction than the comparison group.
Cognitive-Processing Therapy for Female Victims of Sexual Assault This is a cognitive therapeutic program that is intended to assist female victims of sexual assault with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The program is rated Promising. Both PTSD and depression symptoms decreased with cognitive treatment, when compared with the control group.
DNA Field Experiment A program to evaluate the impact of DNA evidence collection and testing on the investigation of high-volume property crimes. The program is rated Effective. Property crime cases resulted in more than twice as many suspects identified, arrested and more cases accepted for prosecution, compared with traditional investigation.
Eisenhower Quantum Opportunities Also known as the Eisenhower Foundation’s Quantum Opportunities Program, the program is an intensive, year-round, multicomponent intervention for high-risk minority students from inner-city neighborhoods, which is provided throughout all 4 years of high school. The program is rated Effective. Program participants had significantly higher grade point averages, high school graduation rates, and college acceptance rates as compared with control group youths.
Engine Immobilizers Devices that prevent a vehicle from starting unless they receive the correct signal from the driver. The goal of these systems is to reduce car theft. The program is rated Effective. Cars fitted with immobilizers reduced rates of theft compared with cars not fitted with the device.
Families And Schools Together (FAST) A multifamily group intervention program designed to build protective factors for children, empower parents to be primary prevention agents, and to build supportive parent-to-parent groups. The program is rated Effective. Two studies found participants had fewer problem behaviors than their controls. There were mixed study results on social skills and academic competency. Other study findings were higher academic performance, improved family functioning and lower special education placement.
Family Matters A family-directed program to reduce tobacco and alcohol use among 12- to 14-year-olds. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant program effect for smoking and drinking which suggest that the program reduced the prevalence of both behaviors.
First Step to Success An early intervention program designed to identify children with antisocial behavior and introduce adaptive behavioral strategies to prevent antisocial behavior in school. The program is rated Effective. Participants showed improvements in adaptive behavior, less maladaptive behavior and aggression, and more attention to the teacher. There were no differences between groups on teacher ratings of withdrawn behavior and significant gains in functional impairment and academic competence.
Functional Family Therapy (FFT) A family-based prevention and intervention program for at-risk youths ages 11 to 18. The program is rated Effective. The treatment group had lower recidivism rates; and when the program was delivered by high-adherent therapists the results were even more significant. The program had a positive effect on youth by reducing risky behavior, increasing strengths, and by improving functioning across key life domains.
Good Behavior Game A classroom management strategy for children ages 6 to 10 designed to improve aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior and prevent later criminality. The program is rated Effective. The analysis showed males with higher levels of aggression at first grade, but there were increasing and significant effects at sixth grade. Findings also include reduced rates of externalizing behavior and more peer acceptance.
Guiding Good Choices A multimedia family competency training program that promotes healthy, protective parent-child interactions and addresses children’s risk for early substance use. The program is rated Effective. There were significant positive effects of the interaction on proactive communication, decreased negative interactions between mothers and their children, improved quality relationships, and positive effects surrounding substance use (i.e. initiation and progression).
Harlem (NY) Children's Zone – Promise Academy Charter Middle School A charter middle school that seeks to give students in grades 6–8 a well-rounded, high-quality education. The program is rated Effective. The results of the study showed that enrollment has the potential to eliminate racial gaps in both math and English Language Arts test scores between white and African American middle school students in New York City. There were improvements in math, ELA scores, and fewer absences.
High Point Drug Market Intervention A problem-oriented policing program that aims to eliminate overt drug markets and the problems associated with them through a deterrence-based, pulling-levers framework. The program is rated Effective. The Intervention had a statistically significant impact on reducing violent incidents in the target areas.
HOMEBUILDERS An in-home, intensive family preservation service and reunification program for families with children returning from or at risk of out-of-home placement. The program is rated Effective. The start of the treatment period until a child returned home was significantly shorter for the experimental group. There were successful reunifications for both the treatment and control group. The intervention was shown to significantly reduce the rate of out-of-home placement.
Hot Spots Policing (Lowell, Mass.) A crime-reduction policing strategy that uses a disorder policing approach to concentrate on improving physical and social order in high-crime locations in Lowell, Mass. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant reduction of the total number of calls for service in the treatment areas relative to the control. Observed disorder was alleviated and calls for service were not significantly displaced into surrounding treatment areas.
INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament A school-based intervention program delivered to urban elementary students, with the participation of parents and teachers, to address disruptive behaviors. The program was rated Effective. In both studies, authors found that the intervention had a marginal-to-moderate effect on behavior problems exhibited by children.
Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) An automated ballistics imaging and analysis system that populates a computerized database of digital ballistic images of bullets and casings from crime guns. The system assists forensic experts in making identifications for investigations and trials. The program is rated Effective. There was an increase in cold hits after system implementation.
Jackson County (Ore.) Community Family Court A family drug court program for parents with admitted substance abuse allegations whose children are wards of the state and in the custody of the Department of Human Services. The program is rated Effective. Participant parents had more favorable treatment and criminal justice outcomes than the control group. Children of participants spent less time in foster care, returned sooner and were more likely to be reunited with a parent; but no difference in placement stability was found.
Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) Program (Lane County, Oregon) Using comprehensive assessments, the program identified, provided, and coordinated individualized services for high-risk, drug-involved, justice-involved juveniles. This program is rated Effective. Results suggest that JBTC participants were significantly less likely to recidivate and had significantly fewer arrests, compared with non-JBTC participants. However, the impact on self-reported drug use was mixed.
Kirkholt (England) Burglary Prevention Project A burglary reduction program that involved working with burglary victims, their neighbors, and potential offenders to remove opportunities and motivations to commit burglary. The Program is rated Effective. Researchers found that the bulk of the burglary rate reductions were achieved during the first part of the intervention and noted an increased percentage of burglary victims who were classified as “new” residents (one year or less). There was no evidence of crime displacement.
LifeSkills® Training A classroom-based tobacco-, alcohol-, and drug abuse-prevention program for upper elementary and junior high school students. The program is rated Effective. The training had positive effects on the treatment groups showing reduced growth of substance initiation, lowered cigarette and alcohol use, and some differences for self-reported marijuana and polydrug use.
Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) The program is designed to prevent the development of aggressive and antisocial behaviors in elementary children. The program is rated Effective. The intervention group showed less child physical aggression, a reduction in substance use initiation; and although the entire sample showed significant mean increases in substance use growth over time, the intervention slowed down the rate.
Maryland Ignition Interlock Program Maryland introduced this program for drivers with multiple alcohol offenses to decrease the number of subsequent alcohol-related traffic violations. The program is rated Effective. Being in the interlock program reduced a driver’s risk of committing a violation within the first year by approximately 64 percent. There was a reduction in the risk for new alcohol-related traffic violations, and less recidivism after the program.
Methadone Maintenance Treatment A medication-assisted treatment for individuals with opioid dependence. The program is rated Effective. The methadone maintenance treatment intervention group had significantly lower HIV drug-risk behaviors (i.e. less reported needle use) than the comparison group who received psychologically enriched 180-day methadone assisted detoxification. The standard and minimal treatment group both reported less heroin use and had fewer positive urine tests at follow-up than the detoxification group.
Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) A school-based comprehensive program intended to promote an antidrug message throughout communities and prevent substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among middle school students. The program is rated Effective. The program significantly reduced cigarette smoking prevalence among treatment youths relative to the control group. There was no significant sustained effect for alcohol or marijuana use at follow-up.
Milwaukee (Wis.) Homicide Review Commission (MHRC) A program that attempts to reduce homicides and non-fatal shooting provides a unique through a multidisciplinary and multiagency homicide review process. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant, 52 percent, decrease, in the monthly count of homicides in the intervention districts.
Minneapolis (MN) Hot Spots Experiment A program that increased police presence in crime “hot spots” to reduce criminal activity in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The program is rated Effective. In hot spots that did not receive intensified police patrols, there was a greater increase in citizen calls to police than in the experimental locations. There also was less observed disorder at the experimental sites.
Multidimensional Family Therapy A manualized family-based treatment and substance abuse prevention program developed for adolescents with drug and behavior problems. The program is typically delivered in an outpatient setting, but it can also be used in inpatient settings. The program is rated Effective. The program resulted in the greatest and most consistent improvements in adolescent substance abuse and associated behavior problems.
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care–Adolescents A behavioral treatment alternative to residential placement for adolescents who have problems with chronic antisocial behavior, emotional disturbance, and delinquency. This program is rated Effective. It was associated with a significant drop in official criminal referral rates, involvement in criminal activities, and days spent in lock up among MTFC-A boys. Similarly, the program was associated with a significant reduction in delinquency and days spent in lock up among MTFC-A girls.
Multisystemic Therapy (MST) A family and community-based treatment program for adolescent offenders who have exhibited serious antisocial, problem, and delinquent behaviors. The program is rated Effective. The treatment group had fewer rearrests and spent fewer days incarcerated than a comparison group that received usual services The program had a positive impact on family cohesion and social skills for the intervention group; but over time did not show better substance use outcomes than the comparison.
Multisystemic Therapy–Substance Abuse A version of Multisystemic Therapy targeted to adolescents with substance abuse and dependency issues. The program is rated Effective. The treatment group was found to have less criminal behavior, alcohol and marijuana use. However, overall, there were no significant differences between the different treatment groups and the comparison group for mental health and psychiatric symptoms.
Multnomah County (Ore.) Sanction Treatment Opportunity Progress (STOP) Drug Diversion Program A drug court in Multnomah County, Ore., that focuses on providing treatment services for offenders facing first-offense drug charges. This is the second-oldest drug court in the country. The program is rated Effective. The results found a statistically significant differences between the treatment group and the comparison group. There were fewer subsequent arrests, convictions, felony arrests, drug arrests, and parole and probation violations.
Nurse–Family Partnership A home visitation program for low-income, first-time mothers to improve family functioning. The program is rated Effective. Program children had less substance use, reported fewer internalizing problems, and had higher child academic achievement. At the 15-year follow-up, less child abuse and neglect involving the mother as the perpetrator or involving the study child for families receiving home visitations during pregnancy and infancy.
Operation Ceasefire (Boston, Mass.) A problem-solving police strategy that seeks to reduce gang violence, illegal gun possession, and gun violence in communities in Boston, Mass. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant decrease in youth homicides, citywide gun assaults, calls for service, and the percentage of recovered handguns that had a fast time-to-crime (the time between a firearm’s first sale at retail and subsequent recovery in a crime).
Operation Cul-de-Sac The program supports the installation of permanent traffic barriers in high-crime neighborhoods to reduce gang drive-by shootings, assaults and homicides. The program is rated Effective. The intervention significantly reduced drive-by shootings; caused predatory crime to fall 8 percent the first year and 37 percent the second year of the program; and increased student attendance by around 200 students per day at the local high school after the street closures.
Operation Peacekeeper A community and problem-oriented policing program in Stockton, CA, to reduce gang involvement and violence among urban youth (10-18). Youth Outreach Workers served as mentors for youth in neighborhood settings. This program is rated Effective. The program was associated with a significant decrease in the monthly number of gun homicides. Also, when compared to gun homicide trends in other midsize California cities, the reduction in homicides in Stockton could be associated with the program.
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) The program teaches parents new interaction and discipline skills to reduce child problem behaviors and child abuse by improving relationships and responses to difficult behavior. The program is rated Effective. Program children were more compliant with less behavior problems than the wait list group. The treatment group parents gave more praise and fewer criticisms and improved negative aspects of their parenting. There were fewer re-reports of physical abuse.
Perry Preschool Project The preschool project provides high-quality education for disadvantaged children ages 3 to 4 to improve their capacity for future success in school and in life. The program is rated Effective. Participants significantly outperformed their no-program peers in a range of educational measures. They also had a higher rate of high school graduation or the equivalent certification. Participants had lower delinquency and crime rates; and at age 27, had higher earnings than the no-program group.
Philadelphia Policing Tactics Experiment: Offender-Focused Policing This is a proactive, hot spots policing tactic that focuses attention on repeat violent offenders operating in neighborhoods with high violent-crime rates. The program is rated Effective. Hot spots that received the treatment reported significantly fewer violent crimes and violent felonies relative to the control areas. However, citizens’ perceptions of crime and safety were not impacted by the intervention.
Police Foot Patrol–Philadelphia 2009 This program used a foot patrol to reduce violent crime in hot spots in Philadelphia, Pa. It involved having rookie officers patrol areas (an average of 1.3 miles of streets) during two shifts per day. This program is rated Effective. There were significant reductions in reported violent crime, although the effect seemed to fade once officers were removed from their targeted beats.
Portland (OR) Burglary Prevention Project A community crime-prevention program in Portland, Oregon, that used a combination of private prevention techniques and neighborhood prevention efforts to protect neighborhoods from burglary. The program is rated Effective. Homes that participated in the program had lower burglary rates than those that did not. The results indicate that there was a citywide decline in burglary rates that could possibly be attributed to the program.
Positive Action The program is designed to improve youth academics, behavior, and character, and can be used by schools, families, or communities. The program is rated Effective. Treatment students reported less substance use, problem behaviors, and violent behavior than the control group. There was a 41 percent reduction in bullying behaviors. Findings regarding sexual activity and disruptive behaviors were not statistically significant.
Positive Family Support (PFS) The program is a multilevel, family-centered intervention targeting children at risk for problem behaviors or substance use and their families. (Formerly known as Adolescent Transitions Program). The program is rated Effective. Students in the treatment group reported significantly less substance use in grade nine than students in the control group. They also used less tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; exhibited less antisocial behavior; and had fewer arrests.
Prize-Based Incentive Contingency Management for Substance Abusers A version of contingency management that provides adult substance abusers in community-based treatment with an opportunity to win prizes if they remain drug free. The program is rated Effective. The incentive group had the longest drug use abstinence, study retention, and attended more counseling sessions compared with those who received usual care.
Project BUILD A violence prevention curriculum designed to assist youths in a detention center to overcome obstacles such as gangs, violence, crime, and substance abuse. The program is rated Effective. Youths who participated in the program had significantly lower rates of recidivism compared to nonparticipants.
Prolonged Exposure Therapy A cognitive–behavioral treatment program for individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. The program is rated Effective. The program reduced the severity of PTSD and depression; anxiety; trauma-related guilt; and improved social functioning.
Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) A prevention program that promotes emotional and social competencies and reduces aggression and behavior problems in elementary school-aged children. The program is rated Effective. Children in the intervention group had less peer-rated aggression and more social competence. Intervention classrooms had a more positive atmosphere, a higher level of interest and enthusiasm, and a greater ability to stay focused than comparison group classrooms.
Queens (NY) Treatment Court A drug court program for first-time nonviolent felony drug offenders who are arrested in Queens County, New York. The court provides drug or alcohol treatment services to persistent drug offenders with a history of substance abuse. The program is rated Effective. Program participation had a significant impact on recidivism rates. In fact, the program produced one of the largest recidivism impacts of any drug court nationwide that has been evaluated to date.
Reduced Probation Caseload in Evidence-Based Setting (Iowa) The program aims to reduce recidivism of high-risk probationers by assigning them to intensive supervision by an officer with a reduced caseload and through the use of evidence-based practices. The program is rated Effective. The treatment group subjects were arrested less than the control group.
Reduced Probation Caseload in Evidence-Based Setting (Oklahoma City) The program aims to reduce recidivism of high-risk probationers by assigning them to intensive supervision by an officer with a reduced caseload and through the use of evidence-based practices. The program is rated Effective. Their evaluation found a significantly higher revocation rate for the treatment compared with the control group. However, the rate of revocations was still very low for the treatment and 1.3 percent for control probationers. The results showed that the treatment group was a
Safe Dates This is a school-based prevention program for middle and high school students designed to stop or prevent the initiation of dating violence victimization and perpetration. The program is rated Effective. Adolescents in the program reported perpetrating less psychological and sexual abuse at all four follow-up periods, compared with youths in the control group. There was a moderate effect of treatment on physical violence victimization.
Safer Cities Programme (UK) An initiative designed to reduce crime, fear of crime, and to create safer environments for economic and community life to flourish. The program is rated Effective. There was a reduction in burglary rates, burglary risk and the fear of burglary. For programs of moderate to high intensity, crime rates dropped in surrounding areas, while displacement was found more with the low-intensity programs.
San Diego (Calif.) Drug Abatement Response Team (DART) This program is designed to reduce drug dealing at residential rental properties by encouraging improved property management practices. The program is rated Effective. Properties that received the full intervention (letter from police department, meeting with police and code enforcement, and threatened nuisance abatement) experienced a significant reduction in crime at rental properties with drug problems and more drug offender evictions.
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) A universal, school-wide prevention strategy aimed at reducing behavior problems that lead to office discipline referrals and suspensions, and change perceptions of school safety. The program is rated Effective. Students in the SWPBIS schools received significantly fewer school suspensions than students in schools that did not receive SWPBIS training. Perceptions of safety improved in the schools that implemented SWPBIS, but declined in the schools that did not implement SWPBIS.
Second Step®: A Violence Prevention Curriculum A prevention program designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children and adolescents by increasing their social competency skills. The program is rated Effective. The intervention group showed significant gains in social competence at varying times. There were improvements among students in measures of anxiety. Girls appeared to have higher scores for some behavioral measures and sixth grade boys had a decrease in externalizing problem behaviors.
SNAP® Under 12 Outreach Project A multisystemic intervention for boys under age 12 displaying aggressive and antisocial behavior problems. This program is rated Effective. It was associated with a significant decrease in children’s delinquency and aggression scores as well as a significant reduction in children’s levels of behaviors such as rule-breaking, aggression, and conduct problems. However, there was no significant effect of the program on the total numbers of convictions.
Specialized Multi Agency Response Team (SMART) A drug-control program designed to reduce drug-related problems and improve habitation conditions at targeted sites. The program is rated Effective. Half the treatment sites experienced improvements in field contacts or arrests. There were reductions in the number of individuals contacted or arrested at the same SMART site; in the number of persons displaced to a catchment area address; and in the number of new individuals attracted to a site (suggesting a small net diffusion of benefits).
Steps to Respect® A school-based antibullying program that teaches social and emotional management skills to elementary school students. The goal is to help improve relationships and buffer the detrimental effects of bullying. The program is rated Effective. There were lower levels of bullying outcomes in the intervention group relative to the control group (e.g., observed bullying behavior, nonbullying aggression, destructive bystander behavior and students involved in malicious gossip).
Stop School Bullying (Greece) A preventative, school-based program for students in 4th, 5th, and 6th grades (ages 9–12) that sought to reduce rates of bullying and victimization within elementary schools. The program is rated Effective. Evaluation results suggest that the program significantly reduced bullying and victimization rates at schools that implemented the program compared with a control group of schools that did not.
Street Lighting in Dudley (England) This is a program to reduce the prevalence and incidence of crime by improving street lighting in residential areas. The program is rated Effective. In the experimental area, prevalence of crime decreased by 23 percent, compared to a 3 percent decrease in the control area. The incidence of crime decreased by 41 percent in the treatment area. There was a small reduction in fear of crime in the treatment area and no evidence of displacement.
Street Lighting in Stoke-on-Trent (England) A program that upgrades street lighting on residential roads and footpaths to decrease crime and fear of crime. The program is rated Effective. In the experimental area, the prevalence of crime decreased by 26 percent; the incidence of crime decreased by 43 percent; and vicarious crime experiences decreased significantly in the experimental area. Both prevalence and incidence of crime decreased in adjacent areas, indicating a diffusion effect. The study found no evidence of displacement.
Strengthening Families Program The program is a multicomponent family skills training program that targets substance-abusing families. The program is rated Effective. There were overall mixed results across three studies. One study found no significant effects on measures of child problem behavior, risk/protective factors, and family factors. However, one study found significant impacts on children’s problem behavior, and another study found significant impacts on time to reunification for child welfare-involved families.
Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 This is an adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program. It aims to reduce substance use and behavior problems using improved skills in nurturing and child management by parents and improved interpersonal and personal ones among youths. The program is rated Effective. The program’s impact on improved parenting competencies and reduced students’ substance-related risk in the 6th grade and on increased school engagement in the 8th, led to increased academic success in the 12th.
Strong African American Families (SAAF) This is a 7-week alcohol-, drug use-, and early sexual activity–reduction program concentrating on rural African American youths. The program is rated Effective. Treatment group mothers reported more communicative parenting, and that the targeted children had more protective factors than those in the control group. Children in the treatment group were also less likely to use alcohol. The change in parenting behaviors resulted in youths’ avoiding and engaging in risk behavior.
Success for All (SFA) This is a schoolwide, intensive educational intervention to detect and resolve literacy problems for school children in preschool through sixth grade who are mostly in high-poverty schools. The program is rated Effective. Letter-Word recognition, Word Attack scores and oral reading results were statistically significant for grades across the five program schools with positive effects for the lowest-achieving students.
Suffolk County (NY) Drug Treatment Court An alternative to incarceration for drug-abusing defendants facing a broad range of charges. The drug court program provides substance abuse treatment and education, as well as case management and intensive supervision. The program is rated Effective. The treatment court reduced recidivism rates following arrest up to 3 years. For postprogram recidivism, the study found the comparison group recidivated at 32 percent compared to 23 percent of the drug court participants.
Teams–Games–Tournaments (TGT) Alcohol Prevention An approach to alcohol prevention, typically delivered to high school students, that combines peer support with group reward structures and. The program is rated Effective. Participants showed gains in alcohol-related knowledge at posttest, relative to both the traditional and no-instruction control groups. They experienced a decrease in alcohol consumption, better attitudes toward drinking and driving, and lower rates of reported impulsive behavior maintained through follow-up.
The Incredible Years A parent, teacher and child social skills training approach to reduce challenging behaviors in children and increase their social and self-control skills. The program is rated Effective. The evaluation reviewed multiple outcomes. Findings revealed that negative parenting practices decreased in the intervention group; there was greater improvement in school readiness measures; classroom atmosphere; child social competence; and stimulation for learning in the treatment group.
Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET) A manualized, trauma-focused psychotherapy for adolescents and adults suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. The program is rated Effective. There were significant reductions in measures of PTSD symptoms and anxiety for the treatment group compared to the control group.
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF–CBT) A treatment intervention designed to help children and their parents overcome the negative effects of traumatic life events such as child sexual or physical abuse. The program is rated Effective. The treatment group had fewer PTSD symptoms, scored lower on the internalizing behavior and total behavior profile, sexualized behavior and problem behaviors. Treatment group parents scored lower in depression, emotional response and higher on parenting practices and support.
Triple P – Positive Parenting Program A multilevel system designed to enhance parental competence, prevent or alter dysfunctional parenting practices, and reduce family risk factors for child maltreatment and children’s behavioral and emotional problems. The program is rated Effective. It had a large effect in reducing child maltreatment in the counties in which it was implemented.
"Seeking Safety" for Incarcerated Women A manualized cognitive–behavioral intervention for incarcerated women with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the program significantly reduced PTSD and depression scores in program participants.
4th R Curriculum The 4th R is an interactive classroom curriculum that aims to reduce youth dating violence by addressing youth violence and bullying, unsafe sexual behavior, and substance use. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly lower physical dating violence rates among boys. However, there was no significant difference in physical peer violence, substance use or condom use between the control and intervention groups.
Aban Aya Youth Project A school- and community-based program developed specifically for African American youth to avoid conflict and reduce drug/alcohol use. The program is rated Promising. Boys receiving one of the treatment conditions showed less of an increase in provoking behavior, school delinquency, substance use, and early sexual activity/risky sexual activity than those receiving the control condition. There were significant program effects for all problem behaviors for boys receiving community intervention.
Abecedarian Project This was an intensive early education intervention aiming to combat the impact of poverty on children’s development and educational aptitude. The program is rated Promising. Treatment group participants had greater reading scores; were more likely to be enrolled in college and have held skilled employment; were less likely to be a teenage parent; and had fewer depressive symptoms than the comparison group participants.
Achievement Mentoring Program (AMP) An intervention for urban minority freshmen at risk of dropping out of high school. The goal was to enhance school-related cognitions and behaviors. The program is rated Promising. The program did not significantly impact students’ absences, grade point averages, or decision-making efficacy, but had significant effects on discipline referrals, negative school behavior, performance in mathematics and language arts, and other self-reported outcomes.
Across Ages A mentoring initiative designed to delay or reduce substance use of at-risk middle school youth through a comprehensive intergenerational approach. This program is rated Promising. The program significantly reduced school absences and had a positive effect on measures of youths’ reactions to situations involving drug use and attitudes toward school, the future, and elders. However, the program did not impact youths’ frequency of substance use or well-being.
Active Parenting of Teens: Families in Action A family-based alcohol, tobacco, and other-drug abuse prevention program that targets families with middle school children. The program is rated Promising. Participants reported greater family cohesion, school attachment, higher levels of self-esteem, and an older age for alcohol consumption than the control group. Also, program parents reported stronger attitudes against minor alcohol use. There was no significant difference between the control and treatment group on attitudes of tobacco use.
Ada County (Idaho) Drug Court Provides court-supervised, community-based outpatient drug treatment and case management services to felony drug offenders. The goals are to increase offender accountability, decrease the likelihood of recidivism, and reduce drug dependency. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce a participant’s likelihood of recidivating.
Adolescent Diversion Program (New York State) A diversion program for 16- and 17-year-old defendants in the New York state adult criminal justice system. The program is rated Promising. Similar rates of recidivism were found for ADP participants and comparison group members, suggesting that diverting older adolescents would not increase recidivism and risk to the public.
Adult Treatment Drug Courts (Multi-site) This was a 6-year national evaluation of the impacts made by adult drug courts (specialized and problem-solving courts for drug-involved offenders). The program is rated Promising. Participants did better than comparison offenders on measures of drug use, criminal behavior, and incarceration. However, there were few significant differences between the groups on measures of other benefits, including socioeconomic status, mental and physical health, family support and homelessness.
Adults and Children Together (ACT) Raising Safe Kids Program A national anti-violence intervention designed to prevent child maltreatment by providing education, resources, and support to parents. The program is rated Promising. Program parents reported a statistically significant decline in harsh discipline as measured by the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC) from the pretest to 3-month follow-up period. There was no statistical difference between the comparison groups for PBC in nurturing, expectation, or parent stress measures.
Aggression Replacement Training (ART) for Adolescents in a Runaway Shelter A program that targets adolescents who live in a short-term facility (a runaway shelter) and exhibit signs of antisocial behavior problems (ASB). The program combines anger-control training, social skills training, and moral reasoning. The program is rated Promising. There was a 20 percent reduction in the rate of ASB incidents per client every week and a statistically significant reduction of 1.1 ASB incident per day.
Al’s Pals: Kids Making Healthy Choices An early childhood curriculum designed to increase the protective factor of social and emotional competence in young children and to decrease the risk factor of early and persistent aggression or antisocial behavior.
Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) An early childhood curriculum designed to increase the protective factor of social and emotional competence in young children and decrease the risk factor of early and persistent aggression or antisocial behavior. The program is rated Promising. Overall, the results were mixed. The intervention group improved significantly on measures of social–emotional competence, prosocial skills, and some measures of coping, but there was no improvement in problem behaviors at the posttest.
Alternatives for Families: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy A comprehensive approach for children and their parents to deal with the effects of child physical abuse, exposure to related abuse, child or family aggression, and hostile family environments. The program is rated Promising. Parents reported less child-to-parent and parent-to-child violence. Children in both treatment groups reported significant reductions for internalizing and externalizing symptoms and parents reported reductions in the belief in the need for physical punishment.
American Indian Life Skills Development A school-based, culturally sensitive, suicide-prevention program for American Indian adolescents, also known as Zuni Life Skills Development. This program is rated Promising. Intervention students demonstrated a significantly higher level of suicide intervention skills. The intervention group showed significantly fewer feelings of hopelessness, however, there were no significant differences on measures of suicide probability and depression.
AMIkids Community-Based Day Treatment Services A day treatment program that provides community-based interventions while allowing youth to reside at home as they attend daily services. The program is rated Promising. The treatment sample was significantly less likely to be adjudicated or convicted for an offense within 12 months of release.
Amity In-Prison Therapeutic Community Provides intensive treatment to male inmates with substance abuse problems during the last 9 to 12 months of their prison term. The volunteer participants must reside in a dedicated program housing unit during treatment. The program is rated Promising. Overall, participants had lower levels of reincarceration rates compared to the control groups.
An E-mentoring Program for Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities An e-mentoring program for high school students with mild learning disabilities to improve their ability to identify postsecondary career goals and the steps necessary to achieve them. This program is rated Promising. The program group showed significant improvement in transition competency, social connectedness, and self-determination. However, there were no significant differences on outcome measures of career/educational goals, academic connectedness, and familial connectedness.
Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) A team-centered, peer-led harm reduction and health promotion program for high school female athletes. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation showed a significant difference on measures of intentions toward future disordered eating behaviors, drug and alcohol use; but, for participants there were no significant differences in self-reported tobacco use compared to the control group.
Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) A multicomponent school-based drug and alcohol prevention program for male high school athletes. The program is rated Promising. The intervention was associated with significant reductions in the experimental group’s intent to use steroids.
Auglaize County (Ohio) Transition (ACT) Program The program works to reduce recidivism of jail inmates once they reenter the community, in part by linking inmates to various resources. The program is rated Promising. The program was successful in reducing recidivism rates among participants.
Baltimore City (Md.) Drug Treatment Court A court that identifies offenders with substance abuse addiction and offers them a program with treatment rather than incarceration. The program is rated Promising. Participants were significantly less likely to be rearrested and had lower scores of maximum crime seriousness. There was no significant difference between drug court participants and control members with respect to employment, physical and mental health or family and social relationships.
Baltimore City (Md.) Family Recovery Program A family drug court designed to serve families involved with child welfare due to parental substance use. The program is rated Promising. There was no difference in the number of cases that reached permanency. However, in cases that did reach permanent placement, they reached it faster. Children whose parents attended the program spent significantly less time in non-kinship foster care. Parents entered treatment more rapidly, and stayed and completed it more often than the non-treatment group.
Baltimore County (Md.) Juvenile Drug Court The program offers an alternative to traditional processing in the juvenile justice system by guiding youths with substance- abusing problems into treatment. The goal is to reduce youths’ use of drugs and criminal behavior. The program is rated Promising. At the 2-year follow up, program participants had significantly fewer overall and drug-related rearrests than a matched comparison group.
Bicultural Competence Skills Approach An intervention designed to prevent Native American adolescents from abusing tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs by teaching them social skills. The program is rated Promising. Two studies showed students were significantly more knowledgeable about substance use and abuse than their control group counterparts. The intervention group reported lower levels of substance use and had more self-control, assertiveness and could generate alternative suggestions to peer pressure.
Boston (Massachusetts) Reentry Initiative (BRI) An interagency public safety initiative to help incarcerated violent adult offenders transition back to their neighborhoods following release from jail through mentoring, social service assistance, and vocational development. The program is rated Promising. The study found participants, relative to the control group, had significantly lower failure rates, arrests for violent crime, or arrests for any crime. The differences between the two groups narrowed somewhat over time.
Boys and Girls Club – Project Learn A non-school program that aims to improve the educational performance of economically disadvantaged adolescents through the provision of out-of-school educational enhancement and enrichment activities. The program is rated Promising. The average grades of treatment youth were significantly higher than control and comparison group youth. The treatment group had significantly fewer days missed, but there were no significant differences between the groups at any follow-up point in the frequency of
Boys Town Family Home Program (Boys Town) A residential program that emphasizes behavioral and academic skills in a family-style setting with the ultimate goal of family reunification. The program is rated Promising. The program significantly increased children’s grade point averages and their perceived level of importance of going to college or chance of completing college. However the program did not have an impact on the years of school completed or receiving a high school diploma or GED.
Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device Program (Illinois) The program requires the installation of ignition interlock devices in motor vehicles to test the breath–alcohol level of drivers convicted of alcohol-related traffic violations. The device prohibits an alcohol-impaired driver from starting and operating the vehicle. The program is rated Promising. The interlock device did deter new violations, but did not promote long-term behavior change.
Brief Motivational Interviewing for Dating Aggression This program aims to reduce harmful behavior with young adult couples who are unmarried and are not cohabitating. It uses a brief counseling method to address ambivalence toward behavioral change and encourage self-motivation for behavioral change. The program is rated Promising. This program was shown to significantly reduce reports of physical aggression and harmful alcohol consumption, but had no significant effect on reports of psychological aggression.
Brief Strategic Family Therapy A family-based intervention designed to prevent and treat child and adolescent behavior problems. The program is rated Promising. There were three studies with inconsistent findings. The studies showed no effects on adolescent drug use or family functioning. The program had some positive effects on engagement and retention, behavior problems, drug use behavior, and an increase in family functioning.
Bringing in the Bystander The goal of the program is to increase bystander awareness of sexual and intimate partner violence and expand an individual’s sense of responsibility to help prevent and intervene in instances of sexual and intimate partner violence. The program was rated Promising. The program improved knowledge of rape myth acceptance, and bystander attitude, behavior, and efficacy among program participants, compared with nonparticipants.
Bully-Proofing Your School A school-based intervention program focused on reducing instances of bullying and victimization, while increasing the safety of students in grades 3–5. The program is rated Promising. In all outcomes, the treatment schools showed significant reductions in bullying, victimization, and witnessed aggression, as well as significant increases in perceptions of safety at school.
Burglary Reduction (Hartlepool, England) A crime prevention program designed to reduce burglary problems in high-crime residential areas. The program is rated Promising. The program led to a reduction in burglaries and repeat victimization in the target area.
Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), Los Angeles (Calif.) A nonprofit organization created by neighborhood property owners or merchants to provide services, activities, and programs to promote local improvements and public safety. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest a reduction in crime and arrests and no crime displacement.
Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), Philadelphia (Pa.) A nonprofit organization created by neighborhood property owners or merchants to provide services, activities, and programs to promote local improvements and public safety. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant reduction in property crime and thefts compared to the control areas and no crime displacement.
Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments A restorative justice program that incorporates the Wagga Wagga conference model as a diversion from conventional court processing. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found a significant decrease in the reoffending rates of violent offenders some impact on offenders’ attitudes about the legitimacy of the law and reoffending. The evaluation found a limited impact of diversionary conferencing on recidivism outcomes.
Cardiff (Wales) Violence Prevention Programme (CVPP) This is a multiagency partnership designed to prevent violence and reduce violence-related, emergency room admissions. The program is rated Promising. Both hospital admissions related to violence and violence recorded by the police decreased as a result of the program, when compared with the comparison cities.
Care, Assess, Respond, Empower (CARE) A school-based, brief assessment and crisis intervention for youth at risk for suicide. The program is rated Promising. There were findings of attitudinal change not evidenced in behavioral change. In two studies, there was a reduction in suicide-risk behaviors and depression over the short and long-term.
Caring School Community An elementary school program that seeks to strengthen students’ connectedness to school. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found mixed results of the overall effectiveness of the program. One study found significant differences between the intervention and comparison classrooms on some measures of behavior. The other study found few significant differences when examining the high-change schools and no significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups.
CCTV in Five English Cities Closed circuit television cameras were installed in five English town and city centers to reduce crime. The program is rated Promising. Visits to emergency departments for assault-related injuries decreased. Although police-recorded violence increased in both the intervention and control sites, it increased more in the intervention sites than the control sites--a variation across sites and not statistically significant.
CCTV in Gillingham, England A program to install closed-circuit television cameras in the town center and adjacent car parks in Gillingham, England. The program is rated Promising. There was a reduction of crime in the treatment area, specifically driven by declines in property crime. However, violent crime increased in the treatment and comparison area. These increases were statistically significant.
CCTV in Philadelphia (Pa.) A program to install closed-circuit television cameras at different locations in the city of Philadelphia. The program is rated Promising. Camera implementation had no significant impact upon the amount of serious crime in the target area but did significantly reduce the number of crime events and disorder type crimes. There were mixed results with respect to displacement/diffusion of benefits across evaluation sites.
CCTV in Redton, England The town of Redton, England, installed closed-circuit television cameras in the central commercial district to reduce crime. The program is rated Promising. Using a trend analysis, there was no significant overall crime decrease. However, in analyses of separate types of crime, controlling for trends, the reduction was significant for some types of crime (theft of and from vehicles), but not from others (other theft, shoplifting).
CCTV in Southwark, England A program to install closed circuit television cameras in town centers to reduce crime and fear of crime. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation showed a reduction in crime rates and improved public safety perceptions. With respect to displacement, buffer area reductions either matched or exceeded reductions in the target areas.
Changing Course An interactive journal designed to help offenders incarcerated in jail who have been screened or identified as having a potential substance use disorder to help inmates make the connection between their substance use and criminal activity. The program is rated Promising. The recidivism rate of inmates who participated in the program’s interactive journal intervention was significantly lower compared with the control group.
Charlotte–Mecklenburg (N.C.) Police Department Domestic Violence Unit A specialized police unit to prevent recidivism among domestic violence offenders and assist victims of domestic violence. The program is rated Promising. Assigned offenders are less likely to recidivate compared to the control group. Offenders assigned to the unit had significantly lower recidivism frequency rates in comparison to offenders assigned to standard patrol.
Cherokee Talking Circle A culturally-based intervention targeting substance abuse among Native American adolescents. The program was designed for students who were part of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, the eighth largest tribe in Oklahoma. The program is rated Promising. The program was significantly more effective in reducing substance abuse and other related problem behaviors compared with other nonculturally, standard substance abuse education programs.
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) The program brings police, local government agencies, and the community together to prioritize problems and prevention efforts in five Chicago neighborhoods. The program is rated Promising. The study found that in close to half of the target beats, there was a reduction in crime versus what was found in comparison beats. However, the results also showed that there were some unsuccessful cases where the crime rate in the intervention increased versus the comparison beat.
Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI) A brief early intervention and secondary prevention model for children aged 7–18 years who have experienced a potentially traumatic event. The program is rated Promising. Youth in the intervention group had significantly lower posttraumatic and anxiety scores than comparison youth.
Child–Parent Center Program (Chicago, Ill.) A school- and family-based early intervention program that provides comprehensive educational and family support services to economically and educationally disadvantaged children. The program is rated Promising. Intervention participants were less inclined toward criminal behavior, depressive symptoms and completed school at a higher grade level than the control group.
Child–Parent Psychotherapy A relationship-based treatment for parents and young children that aims to help restore normal developmental functioning in the wake of violence and trauma. The program is rated Promising. There were significant differences on measures of child functioning and maternal symptoms between the treatment group and the comparison group.
Clarke County (Ga.) Victim Impact Panels A restorative justice program that requires offenders convicted of driving under the influence to attend victim impact panels, where victims give short presentations describing the pain and loss they have suffered due to a drunk driver. The program is rated Promising. After 5 years, fewer participants were rearrested than offenders who did not attend.
Classroom-Centered Intervention to Reduce Risk of Substance Use The program was a universal, preventive intervention for first-grade students, designed to reduce the risk for substance use by improving teachers’ behavior-management skills and enhancing existing classroom curricula. The program is rated Promising. Approximately 6 to 7 years after the end of the program, participants were significantly less likely to have initiated use of tobacco and other drugs, compared with non-participants. The program had no impact on alcohol, marijuana, or inhalant use.
Click-It-or-Ticket Campaign (Mass.) This is a seat-belt-enforcement campaign initiated and funded by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The overall goal is to improve road safety by requiring drivers and passengers in vehicles to properly wear their seat belts. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant decrease in motor vehicle accidents, but no significant impact on non-fatal injuries caused by vehicle accidents.
Common Sense Parenting A group-based parent-training class designed for parents of youths who exhibit significant behavior and emotional problems. The program is rated Promising. There were significant posttreatment effects for measures of externalizing behaviors. There were significant effects for measures of satisfaction, efficacy and greater improvement in their satisfaction with family relationships. The study found no statistically significant treatment effects for internalizing problem behavior.
Communities That Care A planning system that helps communities come together to address adolescent behavior problems such as violence, delinquency, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and dropping out of school. The program is rated Promising. At grade seven, risk factors were higher for students in control communities. There were mixed results with respect to substance use initiation. The study found the intervention group was less likely to initiate delinquent behavior.
Community Advocacy Project A 10-week community- and strengths-based advocacy intervention for women with abusive partners. The program is rated Promising. There were mixed results on social support satisfaction and reported reabuse between the treatment and control group. One study reported no statistically significant group differences on continued involvement with the assailant. Overall, participants were more effective in obtaining and seeking resources, had a better quality of life and psychological well-being.
Community and Law Enforcement Resources Together (ComALERT) A reentry program in Brooklyn, N.Y., that provides substance abuse treatment, employment, and housing services for parolees transitioning from prison back into the community. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to be rearrested, reconvicted, or reincarcerated than the matched control group. They had a higher employment rate, but there was no statistical difference in reincarceration by parole violation, co-residence and contact with children, or drug and alcohol use.
Community Trials Intervention to Reduce High-Risk Drinking (RHRD) A multicomponent program for all ages that aims to reduce underage drinking, binge drinking, and drinking and driving by using environmental interventions and community mobilization. The program is rated Promising. The program evidence is mixed with one study finding differences between the intervention and comparison on some measures. However, another study found few statistically significant differences in their targeted outcome evaluation of alcohol-related injuries and police incidents.
Community-based Residential Programs (Ohio) The programs include halfway houses and community-based correctional facilities in Ohio. The goal of the community-based correctional programs is to reduce recidivism by offering a wide range of programming related to chemical dependency, education, employment, and family relationships. The program is rated Promising. Offenders in community-based residential programs were less likely to recidivate (measured by new arrests and re-incarcerations) than those not in the programs.
Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI) A crime focused initiative, designed to address gang-related gun homicides in selected cities. The initiative involved a comprehensive model of suppression (enforcement), prevention, and reentry. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant reduction in gun homicides related to gang crime in cities that implemented the initiative.
Compstat (Fort Worth, Texas) A policing management program that depends on the cooperation of the entire agency to create a “focused” approach to reduce crime and disorder. The program is rated Promising. The program did not result in increased arrests for all six types of nuisance offenses. However, there was an increase in drunkenness, drug offenses and disorderly conduct arrests. There was no statistically significant effect on violent crime, but an effect on the reduction of property and index offense rates.
Connections A juvenile court-based program designed to address the needs of offenders on probation who have emotional and behavioral disorders and the needs of their families. The approach is meant to be an integrated, seamless, coordinated system of care for children with mental health problems. The program is rated Promising. The intervention youth were significantly less likely to recidivate, commit a felony offense or serve time in detention.
Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline® (CMCD®) A classroom and school reform model that emphasizes shared responsibility for learning and classroom organization between teachers and students. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reading and mathematics achievement on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills reading subtest from pretest to posttest at the end of the second year of intervention.
Coping Power Program A cognitive-based intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents during the children’s transition to middle school, which aims to increase competence, study skills, social skills, and self-control as well as to improve parental involvement in their child’s education. The program is rated Promising. There were mixed results on self-reported delinquency, but overall lower substance use, and improved aggressive behavior for the treatment group.
Court Date Reminder Notices (Nebraska) To reduce failure-to-appear rates, postcard reminders were sent to misdemeanor defendants to remind them of their scheduled court dates. The program is rated Promising. There were significant differences in failure-to-appear rates between the experimental groups that received any type of postcard reminder and the control group that received no reminder.
Cross-Age Peer Mentoring Program The program is a school-based peer mentoring program in which high school students provide one-on-one mentoring to late elementary and early middle school students. This program is rated Promising. The mentored children showed significant improvement on measures of spelling achievement and connectedness to school and to parents compared with the control group. However, mentored and control group children did not significantly differ on connectedness to reading, future, or friends.
Cure Violence (Chicago, Illinois) A violence prevention program that uses a public health approach, using trained street violence interrupters and outreach workers, public education campaigns, and community mobilization to reduce shootings and killings. This program is rated Promising. The program was associated with significant reductions in shootings, killings, and retaliatory homicides and also appeared to make shooting hot spots cooler in some neighborhoods but not others.
Dallas (Texas) Anti-Gang Initiative A policing initiative that used intensive patrol and enforcement of curfew and truancy ordinances to reduce gang-related activity and violence among juveniles in Dallas, Texas. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant decrease in violent gang-related offenses. There were no statistically significant reductions in gang-related offenses reported to police.
DARE to be You A prevention program aimed at high-risk families with children ages 2–5 to lower the risk of future substance abuse and other high-risk activities via improved parenting. The program is rated Promising. There were notable child outcomes, increased parent self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, improved attribution/reasoning skills, but little impact on locus of control. There was no significant difference between groups on measures of stress and mixed results on child-rearing practices.
Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) in Kansas This is a law-enforcement model in which both location-based crime and automobile crash data is analyzed to determine where such incidents disproportionately occur (“hot spots”) and to employ targeted traffic enforcement strategies. The program is rated Promising. The areas of targeted enforcement experienced significant declines in robberies, burglaries, and traffic crashes.
Delaware KEY/Crest Substance Abuse Programs A prison-based therapeutic community for offenders with a history of substance abuse and a residential work release center that allows offenders to continue their treatment as they transition to the community. The program is rated Promising. Program completers and aftercare recipients were less likely to be arrested or use drugs. Also, the treatment group did better at follow-up in remaining arrest and drug-free.
Deterrent-Letter Project (Quebec, Canada) A deterrence-based intervention that took place in four Quebec insurance companies aimed to deter residential theft insurance claimants from exaggerating the value of their claims. The program is rated Promising. The project resulted in a statistically significant reduction in claim padding compared to the control group.
Directed Patrol and Self-Initiated Enforcement in Hot Spots (St. Louis, Missouri) This is an experiment designed to assess the effectiveness of different hot spots tactics (i.e., directed patrol and self-initiated enforcement) on firearm violence. The program is rated Promising. Hot spots that received the self-initiated enforcement experienced a significant reduction in firearm assault rates. However, no differences were found on firearm robbery rates.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education + Play and Learn Under Supervision (DARE + PLUS) A school-based drug use education prevention program taught by police officers in schools. The program targets junior-high/middle school students and is a booster or complement to the DARE program. The program is rated Promising. Boys in DARE + PLUS schools were less likely to show increases in alcohol, tobacco or multidrug use, and girls were less likely to report increases in ever having been drunk compared to DARE-only schools. Program children reported less violent behavior.
Drug Market Analysis Program (Jersey City, NJ) A "hot spots" policing program targeting identified drug activity locations to reduce public disorder by engaging local residents and business owners and applying pressure via crackdowns. The program is rated Promising. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control locations on violence and property offenses; but, there were reductions in disorder and narcotics offenses and fewer calls for service for some measures in the treatment catchment areas.
Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison (DTAP) The first prosecution-led residential drug treatment diversion program in the country, the program diverts nonviolent felony drug offenders to community-based residential treatment. The program is rated Promising. Participation in the program led to reduction in the prevalence and rate of recidivism and delayed time to first rearrest.
DUII Intensive Supervision Program (DISP) A comprehensive 3-year program that includes swift sanctions, intensive probation, close monitoring, and mandatory treatment for repeated impaired-driving offenders. The program is rated Promising. There were statistically significant differences between the treatment and comparison group across all counties. The treatment group experienced lower DUI recidivism, driving with a revoked or suspended license recidivism and any other traffic offense conviction.
Early Risers ‘Skills for Success’ Program A multi-component, high-intensity, competency-enhancement prevention program that targeted elementary school children (ages 6 to 10) who were at high risk for early development of conduct problems. This program is rated Promising. The program had a significant, positive impact on youths’ academic achievement and the discipline practices of their parents. However, the program did not have a significant effect on children’s aggression.
Ecologically Based Family Therapy (EBFT) for Substance-Abusing Runaway Adolescents A home-based, family preservation model that focuses on families who are in crisis because a youth has run away from home. The model targets 12- to 17-year-olds who are staying in a runaway shelter and are also dealing with substance abuse issues. The program is rated Promising. At fifteen months following the program, runaway youth in EBFT reported significantly less substance abuse.
Effective Practices in Community Supervision (EPICS) This is an initial training and coaching model targeted at community supervision officers. The overall goal is to teach community supervision officers how to translate principles of effective intervention into practice, and how to use core correctional practices in their interactions with offenders. The program is rated Promising. Officers in the treatment condition exhibited a greater use of core correctional skills over time than officers in the comparison condition.
Effects of Information Letters on Paying Restitution (Pennsylvania) This experiment tested whether sending a monthly letter to probationers who had been court-ordered to pay restitution would affect how much they paid. The program is rated Promising. Probationers who received letters showing how much they had paid already and how much they owed paid significantly higher amounts and made significantly more monthly payments than probationers who received no letters.
Electronic Monitoring (Florida) Uses systems based on radio frequency or global positioning system (GPS) technology to monitor offenders’ locations and movements in community-based settings. The program is rated Promising. Compared with the control group on other forms of community supervision, the technology reduced the risk of failure to comply.
Empowerment Training for Abused Pregnant Chinese Women An empowerment training program designed to raise self-esteem, improve health, and reduce intimate partner violence among pregnant Chinese women who have been abused. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group showed a larger decline in intimate partner violence for some measures such as psychological abuse and minor physical violence; improved health-related quality of life for some measures; and lower levels of postnatal depression compared to the control group.
Engaging Moms Program A gender-specific, family-based intervention designed to help substance-abusing mothers participating in drug court maintain their parental rights. The program is rated Promising. Mothers who participated in the program showed equal or better improvement than those who received Intensive Case Management Services for all outcomes. Mothers who participated were more likely to have positive child welfare outcomes.
Equipping Youth to Help One Another (EQUIP) A multicomponent treatment program administered in juvenile correctional facilities for juvenile delinquents and other youth with conduct disorders. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group demonstrated larger gains in social skills, lower levels of institutional misconduct, and were less likely to recidivate than either of the control groups.
Experience Corps A tutoring and mentoring program to improve the literacy outcomes of elementary school-aged children at risk of academic failure. This program is rated Promising. Program participants made significantly greater gains in reading comprehension scores and teacher-assessed reading skills over an academic year, as compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in vocabulary and word attack scores from pre- to postintervention.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) A therapeutic approach designed to help individuals who have experienced traumatic stress to reprocess and adaptively store dysfunctionally stored traumatic memories. The program is rated Promising. There were significant pre–post gains on all outcome measures for the treatment and comparison group that received the active listening approach. However, the differential improvement on depression, anxiety, PTSD and impact resulted in greater pre–post changes for the treatment group.
Familias Unidas A Hispanic family-based program that aims to improve family functioning and prevent or reduce drug use and risky sexual behavior in youth. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group experienced a steady decline in behavior problems. Parents reported significantly greater improvements in family functioning. However, the intervention had no effects on academic achievement. The intervention did not prevent adolescent sexual activity but had a positive impact on safer sex practices.
Family Check-Up (FCU) for Adolescents A family-centered preventive intervention designed to assist families with high-risk adolescents, ages 11–17. The goal is to reduce the growth of adolescents’ problem behaviors and substance abuse; improve parenting skills; and reduce family conflict. The program is rated Promising. Students who received FCU services showed significantly less growth in antisocial behavior and substance use as well as a stable GPA from the start of middle school into high school.
Family Check-Up (FCU) for Children The program is a preventative, family-based intervention targeting families with young children who possess risk factors for child behavioral misconduct. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the intervention indirectly reduced child problem behavior via parental positive behavior support. More specifically, the intervention appeared to significantly increase levels of parents’ positive behavior support, which in turn significantly reduced children’s problem behavior.
Family Foundations A psycho-educational, skills-based program for first-time expectant parents delivered through childbirth education departments at local hospitals. The program is rated Promising. Intervention group parents had a higher measure of positive mother and father parenting, coparenting and couple relationships. The program also had positive effects on child behavior compared to the control group.
Family Solutions Program (FSP) A multi-family group intervention program comprised of 10 sessions targeting first-time offending youth. The program is rated Promising. Those completed the program reoffended less than the program dropouts and the probation comparison youth group.
Family-School Partnership Intervention to Reduce Risk of Substance Use The program was a universal, preventive intervention for first-grade students, designed to reduce the risk for substance use by improving teachers' and parents' communication and behavior-management skills. The program is rated Promising. Approximately 6 to 7 years after the end of the program, participants were significantly less likely to have initiated tobacco use, compared with non-participants. The program had no impact on alcohol, marijuana, inhalant, or other drug use.
Fast Track A comprehensive, long-term prevention program that aims to prevent chronic and severe conduct problems in high-risk children from 1st through 10th grades. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the treatment group were significantly less likely than control group participants to exhibit evidence of serious conduct problems and had higher social cognition. While parenting behaviors improved there were no differences between the groups in academic progress and child social competence.
Forever Free The first comprehensive, in-prison, residential substance abuse treatment program designed for incarcerated women. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group reported fewer arrests during parole, less drug use and were employed more at follow-up than the comparison group.
Fostering Healthy Futures Program A preventative intervention for preadolescent youth recently placed in foster care due to child maltreatment, with an overall goal of improving child well-being. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the program significantly reduced mental health problems, and measures of dissociation. In addition, treatment group youths living in nonrelative foster homes at baseline were more likely to achieve permanency and experience fewer placements.
Front-End Diversion Initiative A preadjudication diversion program designed to divert juveniles with mental health needs away from the juvenile justice system through specialized supervision and case management. The program is rated Promising. Participants were significantly less likely to face adjudication compared to those who only received traditional supervision while on probation.
Gang Reduction Program (Los Angeles, California) A comprehensive, multiyear initiative to reduce youth gang crime and violence through a combination of strategies. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with a significant decrease in the number of calls reporting shots fired and gang-related incidents in the target area. However, it did not have a significant effect on the number of calls reporting vandalism or gang or non-gang related serious violence incidents or on attendance levels of elementary, middle, or high schools.
Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) A school-based program that seeks to prevent violence and criminal activity, teach youths to avoid gang membership, and develop positive relationships with law enforcement. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found a moderate positive effect on gang membership, no statistical differences in delinquency and violent offending. There was a small positive effect on prosocial attitudes toward police and the development of social skills.
Global Positioning System for High-Risk Gang Offenders (California) Monitors and tracks the movement of parolees categorized as high risk for gang involvement or activity. The program is rated Promising. Parolees monitored by the GPS program had significantly less arrests for new offenses and violent offenses, but had higher odds of technical violations.
Guam Adult Drug Court A drug court diversion program that aims to help participants become clean and sober, improve their lives, and reduce their involvement with the criminal justice system. The program focuses on getting participants into treatment as soon as possible after arrest. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group went back through the court system less often than comparison group members, recidivated less, and had no drug-related crimes. The graduation rate was 66% for the program.
Gunshot Detection Technology (Hampton, VA) An acoustic surveillance system installed in high-crime areas that alerts police to gunshots fired and provides precise information on the location of the shots. The program is rated Promising. The study found promising results with regard to the gunshot detection system’s ability to improve community detection, as well as improve the data accuracy of gunshot events. However, results did not show a significant impact on the technology’s ability to reduce crime.
Hamilton County (Ohio) Ignition Interlock Device Program The program required the installation of ignition interlock devices in motor vehicles to test the breath–alcohol level of drivers convicted of alcohol-related traffic violations. The device prohibits an alcohol-impaired driver from starting and operating the vehicle. The program is rated Promising. The Driving Under Influence, Driving Under Suspension/No Driver’s License rearrest rate for the license suspension group was greater than the treatment group.
Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) A community supervision strategy for substance-abusing probationers, particularly for those who have long histories of drug use and involvement with the criminal justice system, and considered at high risk of failing probation or returning to prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to miss appointments with probation officers, use drugs and be arrested.
Healthy Families America A home visitation program targeting expecting and new parents, with children up to age 5, who are at risk of abusing or neglecting their children. The program is rated Promising. The study showed parenting behaviors improved and some evidence of a reduction in precursors to delinquency. There were no effects on the prevalence or number of confirmed child Protective Services reports of child maltreatment for the sample as a whole.
HUD’s HOPE VI Initiative (Milwaukee, WI) A federal initiative under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to eradicate severely distressed public housing and reconstruct sites with more livable housing. The program is rated Promising. The initiative did not have a significant effect on crime until the stability period of the project (after redevelopment had taken place and most residents had moved into new units). When crime went down in the target area, crime also went down in the buffer areas--a diffusion of benefits.
I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) A school-based prevention program that trains children in generating a variety of solutions to problems. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group had significantly greater problem-solving, self-regulation and understanding of consequences scores. There was greater adjustment and improved behavior, and social bonding at school; but no significant differences for social competence between groups.
Idaho DUI Courts and Misdemeanor/DUI Courts The courts use a comprehensive approach to address the underlying causes of driving under the influence. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group had a lower recidivism rate than the comparison group. However, the treatment group had a statistically significant higher rate of new charges classified as felonies.
In-Prison Visitation (Florida) Visitation in prison allows inmates to connect to the outside world by developing social bonds with family members and friends. The overall goal of in-prison visitation is to reduce recidivism and assist in helping inmates adjust to transitioning back into their community. The program is rated Promising. The recidivism rate was significantly lower for inmates who received visitation compared with those inmates who did not receive visitation.
Independence Youth Court A diversion program for young offenders. The primary goal of the program is to reduce the occurrence of juvenile crime by diverting youth from the traditional juvenile justice system and providing an alternative to formal processing. The program is rated Promising. Treatment youth were significantly less likely to reoffend.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Directed Patrol A policing program that uses a proactive directed patrol strategy to reduce firearms violence in Indianapolis, Indiana. The program is rated Promising. The effect on reducing firearms crime was seen in the North target beats, but not the East. Control police beats showed an increase in gun crimes, and in the remaining areas of Indianapolis homicides increased.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Family Group Conferencing Experiment A restorative justice diversion program for young, first-time juvenile offenders. The goal was to break the cycle of offending before it reached the stage of repeat offending. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to recidivate as fast and had, on average, fewer rearrests than juveniles in the control group.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Violence Reduction Partnership (IVRP) A policing program that targeted high-risk chronic offenders in order to reduce gun violence in Indianapolis, Indiana. The program is rated Promising. When compared to the homicide trends in six other cities, Indianapolis was the only one that experienced a statistically significant decline. Gang-related homicides and homicides involving 15-24 year olds also showed a statistically significant decline.
Indigent Defense for Homicide Cases (Philadelphia, Penn.) Indigent defense involves the constitutionally mandated free representation for those accused of crimes who are unable to afford representation. The program is rated Promising. Defendants were less likely convicted of murder, had shorter sentences and spent fewer years in prison than defendants represented by private counsel. The probability of receiving a life, minimum or maximum sentence was reduced. There was no conclusion on death sentences or statistical differences for guilty rates.
Infant–Parent Psychotherapy A relationship-based treatment for parents and infants designed to improve the parent–child relationship, by examining the insecurities that have developed in parents from negative experiences during their own childhoods. The program is rated Promising. The Infant-Parent Psychotherapy group significantly improved on measurements of attachment when compared with the community standard condition. Intent-to-treat analyses confirmed the treatment effects of the interventions.
InnerChange Freedom Initiative (Minnesota) A voluntary, faith-based prisoner reentry program that attempts to prepare inmates for reintegration into the community, employment, family, and other significant relationships through educational, values-based programming. The program is rated Promising. Participants were rearrested, reconvicted, and reincarcerated less than the comparison group. There was no statistically significant impact on revocations for a technical violation between the groups.
Interim Methadone Maintenance (IM) A daily treatment program where opiate-addicted adults on waiting lists for comprehensive treatment receive doses of methadone as well as emergency counseling. The program is rated Promising. Participants entered into treatment programs more than the waitlist control group. There was less drug use detected for heroin, but not for cocaine or alcohol; and no difference in crime rates between groups however self-reports of drug spending was less for participants at the 4-month follow-up.
It's Your Game... Keep It Real A health education program for 7th and 8th graders designed to delay sexual behavior and promote healthy dating relationships. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce emotional and physical dating violence victimization. However, the program did not have a significant effect on physical perpetration of dating violence.
Jefferson County Community Partnership (Birmingham, Ala.) Offers a wide array of services for youth with serious emotional disturbances to reduce youth's contact with the juvenile justice system. The services are accessible, community-based, individualized, culturally competent, and include an individual’s family in the planning and delivery of treatment. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce youths’ contact with the juvenile justice system.
Job Corps A national residential education and job training program that targets economically disadvantaged youths between the ages of 16 and 24 years old. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than the control. There were no statistically significant differences between the control and treatment for alcohol or drug usage. Employment rates and earnings surpassed the control group during the 2nd year follow-up period.
Juvenile Drug Courts With Contingency Management and Multisystemic Therapy Incorporates contingency management protocols and multisystemic therapy into traditional juvenile drug court services to provide juveniles and families with additional engagement opportunities and support in order to reduce recidivism and substance abuse. The program is rated Promising. The program significantly reduced alcohol and poly drug use, positive drug urine screens, status offenses, and property offenses. The program had mixed effects on marijuana use and offenses against persons.
Juvenile Justice Assessment Planning Referral Placement (JARPP) It is a training curriculum for juvenile justice probation/parole case managers (PCMs). JARPP was designed to promote PCMs’ use of evidence-based practices to identify the mental health and substance use needs of delinquent youth and increase their access to community clinical services. This program is rated Promising. There were significant reductions in the recidivism and placement rates for youths whose PCMs received enhanced JARPP training.
Kansas City (MO) Gun Experiment A police patrol project aimed at reducing gun violence, drive-by shootings and homicides. During the experimental period, extra police patrols were placed in gun crime "hot spots" in a target area. The program is rated Promising. There was an increase in gun seizures, a decline in gun crimes, some evidence of program benefit diffusion, and no displacement. There were lower homicides in the targeted area but no statistical difference in drive-by shootings or other types of crimes.
Kansas City (MO) Police Department Street Narcotics Unit A special police unit developed to conduct raids of crack houses to reduce crack-related crime and improve public order in Kansas City, Missouri. The program is rated Promising. There were fewer calls for service and reported offenses for the experimental group. The Follow-up effects were sustained for both outcomes for about 2 weeks after the experiment ended.
KEEP SAFE Formerly known as Middle School Success, it is a multi-component intervention to prevent delinquency and substance abuse among girls in foster care transitioning from elementary to middle school. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with a significant decline in tobacco, marijuana, and overall substance use as well as delinquent behavior. However, there was no impact on girls’ alcohol use, association with delinquent peers, or overall delinquent behavior.
Keeper Boxes Also known as safer boxes, they are clear, polycarbonate boxes that are designed to protect so-called hot products in retail stores by placing selected merchandise in the sturdy lock boxes. The program is rated Promising. At the 13-week follow-up, shrinkage (or unexplained unit loss) significantly decreased by 52 percent while sales significantly increased by 69 percent in the experimental stores that used Keeper Boxes compared with the control stores that did not use Keeper Boxes.
keepin’ it REAL This culturally focused youth drug-prevention program is designed to increase resistance skills. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group reported less alcohol and marijuana use 14 months after the intervention. There were no differences in substance resistance strategies, descriptive norms, or intent to accept and self-efficacy. Over time, the control group had more positive views of substance use. The type of cultural version used had an impact on personal norms and substance use.
Kids Club A multicomponent approach designed to improve behavioral and mental health in children exposed to intimate partner violence while providing empowerment and parenting training to mothers. The program is rated Promising. Children in the “child plus mother” group showed the greatest improvement over time in externalizing problems, both the child plus mother and child only groups became less excepting of violence.
Kids in Transition to School (KITS) This is a short-term intervention program designed to assess children in transition to kindergarten. The goal of the program is to increase school-readiness and to develop early literacy and social and self-regulation skills. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group displayed significantly lower levels of oppositional and aggressive behavior as well as significantly higher levels of self-regulation.
KiVa Antibullying Program An elementary school-based program to reduce school bullying and victimization. The program was designed for national use in Finnish schools. The program is rated Promising. KiVa schools self-reported less bullying, victimization and peer-reported victimization; but not for peer-reported bullying (except for older student reports were lower).
Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) Program (Seattle, Washington) This is a pre-booking, community-based diversion program designed to divert those suspected of low-level drug and prostitution offenses away from jail and prosecution and into case management and other supportive services. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group was significantly less likely to have been arrested, compared with the control group, at the shorter- and longer-term follow ups. However, there was no significant impact on non-warrant arrests.
Little Village Gang Violence Reduction Project (Comprehensive Gang Model) A comprehensive, community-wide program designed to reduce serious violence in Chicago's gang-ridden Little Village neighborhood. The program is rated Promising. The project appeared to reduce arrests for violent crimes, serious violent crimes, and drug crimes, but did not have an effect on arrests for property crimes or total arrests.
Maine Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts These court supervised, post-plea (but pre-final disposition) drug diversion programs provide comprehensive community-based treatment services to juvenile offenders and their families. The program is rated Promising. The program had a small effect on recidivism.
Media Detective A media literacy education and substance use prevention program for third through fifth grade students. The program is rated Promising. Students in the intervention group were better able to deconstruct advertisements and understand persuasive intent. There were no significant differences between the groups in interest in alcohol-branded merchandise or intentions to use alcohol or tobacco.
Media Ready A media literacy education and substance use prevention program for sixth through eighth graders. The program is rated Promising. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups overall on intentions to use alcohol. However, boys in the control group had significantly higher intentions. Control group students were more likely to use tobacco. Intervention students showed improvement in critical thinking skills regarding media messages.
Mendota Juvenile Treatment Center A residential facility that provides mental health treatment to serious and violent juvenile offenders in secured correctional institutions. The program is rated Promising. Overall, the studies evaluating the program showed treatment had a significant impact on measures of felony and violent felony offenses, but did not impact misdemeanor offenses.
Mental Health Courts (Multisite) Postbooking jail diversion programs that aim to divert justice-involved individuals with serious mental illnesses out of the court system and into community-based treatment without jeopardizing public safety. This program is rated Promising. Mental health courts in four cities were shown to significantly reduce participants’ rates of arrests and incarceration days at the 18-month follow-up.
Mental Health Services Continuum Program (Calif.) The program targets parolees with mental health problems and provides services to enhance their level of individual functioning in the community. The overall goal is to reduce recidivism of mentally ill parolees and improve public safety. The program is rated Promising. Parolees who participated in the program and received a pre-release assessment or who had one or more contacts with the Parole Outpatient Clinic showed a significant reduction in the odds of being returned to custody.
Methodist Home for Children's Value-Based Therapeutic Environment (VBTE) Model A nonpunitive treatment model that concentrates on teaching juvenile justice–involved youth about prosocial behaviors as alternatives to antisocial behaviors. The program is rated Promising. It had significant effects on new charges and convictions for person offenses, but it did not significantly affect charges and convictions for property, drug, and public order offenses. Youths who received the treatment did spend significantly fewer total days incarcerated compared with control youths.
Michigan Model for Health A health education curriculum that targets K–12 students and includes age-appropriate lessons that focus on the most serious health challenges facing school-aged children. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group had a decline in aggressive behavior; improved social and emotional health, interpersonal and drug refusal skills; and better odds for avoiding drug use. There was no significant intervention effect found for prosocial behavior.
Minneapolis Center for Victim-Offender Mediation A restorative justice program that provides juvenile offenders and their victims the opportunity to meet face-to-face in the presence of a mediator to discuss the offense and establish a plan for the future. The program is rated Promising. Offenders in the program were more likely to complete their restitution obligation. Also, there was a significant impact on victim satisfaction with the juvenile justice system, but not so for offenders.
Minnesota Prison-based Chemical Dependency Treatment Prison-based treatment for offenders who are chemically abusive or dependent. The program is rated Promising. Offenders who received treatment had significantly lower rates of reoffending. Completing treatment reduced the hazard for rearrest by 22 percent, for reconviction by 20 percent, and for incarceration by 27 percent. Increased treatment time was also found to have some impact on recidivism.
Minnesota Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment Program The program offers treatment, therapy, and transitional services to convicted male sex offenders in prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants recidivated less and more slowly than untreated inmates. Treatment also impacted recidivism for violent and general offenses; but was not found to be more, or less, effective for certain types of sex offenders.
Model Smoking Prevention Program Formerly known as the Minnesota Smoking Prevention Program, this is a smoking prevention program for school-aged children that consists of an interactive curriculum of coursework designed to inform students about the harms of tobacco use. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group reported reduced smoking intensity and prevalence, compared with the comparison group.
Modified Therapeutic Community for Offenders with Mental Illness and Chemical Abuse (MICA) Disorders An adaptation of the therapeutic community models for use with offenders who have both drug abuse problems and mental health disorders. This modified version uses a more flexible, more personalized, and less intense program that targets reductions in substance use and recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the treatment group were less likely to abuse substances; and if they did start, it was later than the control group.
Movimiento Ascendencia (Pueblo, Colo.) A culturally focused, gender-specific program that provides young females, primarily Mexican American, alternatives to substance abuse and gang involvement. The program is rated Promising. The program significantly reduced self-reports of damaging property; stealing more than $50; and buying, selling, or holding stolen goods. However, it had no impact on self-esteem, grades in school, concealing of weapons, and stealing less than $50.
Moving On (Minnesota) This is a curriculum-based, gender-responsive intervention created to address the different cognitive–behavioral needs of incarcerated women. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce recidivism as measured by rearrests and reconvictions, but did not have a significant impact on reincarcerations for a new offense and technical violation revocations.
Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST–CAN) The program targets family functioning and parental behavior to reduce child abuse, neglect, and out-of-home placement. The program is rated Promising. For the treatment group there was less child- and parent-reported neglect, psychological aggression, and minor and severe assault; however, there was no differences between groups for incidents of abuse over the 16 months postbaseline. The treatment group also had greater improvement in child and parent functioning and less out-of-home placement
Multisystemic Therapy for Youth With Problem Sexual Behaviors (MST–PSB) An adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy aimed at adolescents who have committed sexual offenses and demonstrated other problem behaviors. The program is rated Promising. Participants showed symptom decrease over time, and parents reported decreased behavior problems. Participants showed increases in cohesion and adaptability. There was an improvement in peer relations, a decrease in self-reported delinquent behavior, fewer arrests and incarceration.
Multisystemic Therapy–Family Integrated Transitions (MST–FIT) The program provides integrated individual and family services to juvenile offenders who have co-occurring mental health and chemical dependency disorders during their transition from incarceration back into the community. The program is rated Promising. Results showed the intervention had a significant effect on felony recidivism at 36 months postrelease. However, it did not appear to have a significant effect on overall recidivism (misdemeanor or felony).
Multisystemic Therapy–Psychiatric The therapy addresses externalizing symptoms, mental health symptoms, suicidal behaviors, and family relations while allowing youths with serious behavioral and psychiatric problems to spend more time in education and their home environment. The program is rated Promising. The treatment provided greater and more rapid reductions in suicide attempts than hospitalization. There were no significant differences for suicidal ideation.
Naltrexone for Federal Probationers A medication used in the treatment of opioid addiction, which works by antagonizing opioid receptors and blocking the effects of opiates consumed by addicts (usually in the form of heroin). The program is rated Promising. There was significantly less opioid use among the experimental group. The experimental group receiving naltrexone was significantly less likely to be reincarcerated.
Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) A psychosocial treatment that aims to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in traumatized refugee populations still living in dangerous situations (e.g., refugee camps). The program is rated Promising. One year after treatment, fewer participants had PTSD. There were no differences in conditions such as anxiety or depression between treatment and control groups. There was improvement in psychological functioning compared to the supportive counseling group, but not compared to the psycho
Narrative Exposure Therapy for Traumatized Children and Adolescents (KidNET) An individual-level, psychosocial treatment that aims to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in traumatized refugee youth living in exile. The program is rated Promising. Participants showed clinically significant improvement in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning, and symptom clusters (e.g., intrusions, avoidance and numbing, hyperarousal, and functional impairment). No significant differences were found between the two groups in comorbid disorders at 6 months.
Nashville (Tenn.) Drug Market Intervention A policing program that used community mobilization, strategic planning, and pulling levers notifications to reduce drug dealing in a high-crime area. The program is rated Promising. As a result of the intervention, postintervention drug crime incidents declined, and surveyed residents believed that street drug markets were less of an issue after implementation. There was no statistically significant evidence that the intervention impacted Type 1 UCR offenses or calls for service.
Neighborhood Enrichment with Vision Involving Services, Treatment, and Supervision (NEW VISTAS) A comprehensive, neighborhood-based, family-focused service delivery model that employed wraparound services and case management for criminally involved families with identified substance abuse problems. The program was rated Promising. There was a significant decrease in youth alcohol/drug problems, out-of-home placements (both institutional and noninstitutional), and recidivism rates for participating youths who completed the program.
New Jersey Community Resource Centers Nonresidential multiservice centers that facilitate parolees’ successful reintegration back into the community. The program is rated Promising. Participants had lower reconviction rates than parolees who received no community supervision, did not participate in community programs, or participated in a Halfway Back program. Participants also had significantly lower rates than parolees who either did not receive community programming or any community supervision.
New Jersey Halfway Back Program A highly structured program that serves as an alternative to incarceration for technical parole violators or as a special condition of parole release. Halfway Back programs provide parolees with an environment that is halfway between prison and parole release. The program is rated Promising. Participants lasted considerably longer to a rearrest and had the lowest rate of reincarceration compared to the other groups (day reporting centers, parolees with no community programming and max-outs).
NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol This is a structured interview protocol for professionals conducting forensic interviews with suspected child sexual abuse victims. The program is rated Promising. More protocol cases resulted in filed charges compared to pre-NICHD protocol cases. For those cases that went to trial, significantly more protocol cases resulted in a found guilty at trial outcome. Overall there were mixed results on findings for delays across case flow.
Nutritional Supplements for Young Adult Prisoners An effort that provided nutritional supplements to young adult prisoners to decrease negative, antisocial behaviors. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group who received the active nutritional supplement showed a reduction in disciplinary incidents compared to the control group who received placebo capsules. There was no significant difference in the development of aggressive and hostile behavior or psychological well-being between the groups.
Offender Reentry Community Safety Program Formerly called the Dangerous Mentally Ill Offender Program, this is a reentry-planning and service program aimed at reducing recidivism for dangerously mentally ill offenders in Washington State. The program is rated Promising. Program participants had significantly lower violent felony and overall felony recidivism rates compared with the matched control group 4 years following release from prison.
Operation Burglary Countdown A community-based program to reduce residential burglary in targeted hotspot areas. The program is rated Promising. There were substantial reductions in residential burglaries in the treatment and surrounding buffer area, suggesting a diffusion of benefits. The number of residents burgled more than once within a 12-month period decreased, and there was an increase in feelings of safety in the one of the targeted areas.
Operation Ceasefire: Hollenbeck Initiative A policing initiative that targeted specific dangerous gangs using aggressive enforcement to reduce gun violence. The program is rated Promising. In the five targeted police reporting districts, violent crime decreased by 37 percent during the six months after the intervention. This was a significant change in comparison to the other districts, where violent crime decreased by only 22 percent. The intervention also reduced gun and gang crime.
Operation Hardcore (Los Angeles, CA) A judicial intervention implemented to improve the prosecution of gang-related crimes through the use of specialized units. The program is rated Promising. There was a decrease in case dismissals, higher conviction and incarceration rates and fewer case rejections. There was no significant difference in the rate of pleas.
Operation Impact (Newark, New Jersey) A saturation foot-patrol initiative implemented in Newark, New Jersey, in 2008. The program is rated Promising. The intervention reduced overall violence, aggravated assault, and shootings in the targeted area. Evidence for a reduction in murder rates was less clear and The initiative does not appear to have influenced the number of robberies.
Operation New Hope A curriculum-based aftercare treatment program (formerly called Lifeskills ’95) designed to help chronic, high-risk juvenile offenders reintegrate back into the community after they are released from confinement. The program is rated Promising. Participants were more successful at parole, less likely to be arrested or use drugs, displayed greater improvements in social behavior, and were more likely to be employed compared to the control group parolees.
Operation Safe Streets (Philadelphia, Pa.) A problem-oriented policing program targeted at high-crime areas and drug corners to prevent violent and drug-related crime. The program is rated Promising. Localized analysis of the intervention areas found reductions in violent and drug crime rates. Analysis on the adjoining areas suggests the intervention caused some spatial diffusion of benefits for violent and drug crime displacement. There were no statistically significant effects on citywide homicides, violent or drug crime rates.
Örebro Prevention Program A Swedish alcohol and delinquency prevention program designed to decrease underage drinking and delinquency by increasing parents’ restrictive and prohibitory attitudes. The program is rated Promising. The program reduced delinquency in the treatment group. Posttest results showed participant parents became significantly stricter in permissiveness of underage drinking. Alcohol use increased for both adolescent groups over time; however, the control group had a much steeper and greater increase.
Oregon Drug Courts These courts provide comprehensive management of drug offenders through increased treatment, monitoring, and interactions with the court judge to reduce reoffending and have better drug treatment outcomes. The program is rated Promising. Participants had fewer rearrests and lower recidivism rates. The treatment group also engaged in less criminal activity over time than the comparison. Drug court results and implementation varied by court across the state.
Ottawa County (Mich.) Sobriety Court Program A driving under the influence court that has three main goals: diverting offenders from jail, eliminating substance use, and reducing recidivism of offenders that live within the court’s jurisdiction. The program is rated Promising. There were significant differences between participants and the comparison group who were on traditional probation. The intervention group was rearrested less often and spent less time in jail following entry into the program.
Parenting with Love and Limits® A program that combines group and family therapy to treat adolescents ages 10–18 with the primary diagnosis of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the treatment group had significantly fewer offenses during the 12 months after program completion than the control group. There were some changes in caregiver attitudes and behaviors and improvement in child aggressive behavior. Communication between mothers and youths improved.
PeaceBuilders A school-based violence prevention program designed to reduce aggression and improve social competence. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group showed improved social competence and less aggressive behavior.
Peers Making Peace A peer-mediation program designed to handle conflicts both in and out of school and to help maintain drug-free schools. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group had fewer assaults, expulsions, discipline referrals, absences, a greater improvement in self-efficacy, and significantly improved in academic performance.
Philadelphia (Pa.) Low-Intensity Community Supervision Experiment An experiment conducted to examine the effects of lowering the intensity of community supervision with low-risk offenders in an urban community. The program is rated Promising. The results showed that reducing the intensity of supervision had no effect on the subsequent criminal behavior of low-risk offenders.
Phoenix (Ariz.) Repeat Offender Program A postarrest case-management program that used cooperation between police and prosecutors to increase the likelihood that high-risk chronic offenders would be convicted and incarcerated. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group was more likely to be sentenced to prison and have longer prison sentences. There was no statistically significant difference for conviction rates between the groups.
Positive Youth Development Program (Connecticut) A school-based prevention program that taught students cognitive, behavioral and affective skills, and encouraged them to apply these skills when dealing with daily challenges, problems, and decisions. The program is rated Promising. Compared with control students, program participants improved in coping skills, social and emotional adjustment.
Pre-K RECAP A semi-structured, school-based intervention program developed for pre-kindergarten students seeking to improve emotional and behavioral problems and promote social skills development. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results showed no significant differences regarding parent-rated behavioral problems or social skill, yet teacher ratings of child behavioral problems and social skills significantly improved in the intervention group.
Preventing Parolee Crime Program (PPCP) A multidimensional, parole-based reintegration program that aims to reduce parolees’ crime and reincarceration by providing them with services that can facilitate a successful reintegration into society following release from prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants who met treatment goals had the lowest recidivism rates. In general, the longer the parolees stayed in a program, the less likely they were to return to prison.
Prevention of Shoplifting A crime prevention program designed to assess the effect of store redesign, electronic tagging, and the deployment of uniformed guards on the reduction of shoplifting in high-theft stores. The program is rated Promising. The study found behavioral change with some interventions (electronic tagging and store redesign), but not with others (presence of a guard). Moreover, some behavioral changes were short lived while others lasted longer.
Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) The program is a preventative, group-based training intervention for parents and kindergarten teachers of young children (ages 3–6) with externalizing problem behaviors. The program seeks to reduce externalizing problem behaviors and ultimately prevent delinquency later in life. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the program moderately reduced child externalizing problem behaviors, based on questionnaires completed by mothers and teachers.
Preventive Treatment Program A prevention program aimed at disruptive kindergarten boys and their parents, with the goal of reducing short- and long-term antisocial behavior. The program is rated Promising. There were some positive effects of the program found in the short term, but the effects seemed to disappear by the time the boys were 15 years old. However, positive effects were found by the time the boys were 24 years old, and mixed effects were shown through the time the boys were 28 years old.
Prison Industry Enhancement Certificate Program (PIECP) The program engages state prison inmates in private sector jobs (which pay minimum wage or higher), in an effort to increase post-release employment and reduce recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Compared with inmates who worked in traditional prison industries and participated in other activities such as education and drug treatment, program participants had significantly higher post-release employment and lower recidivism rates.
Prison-Initiated Methadone Maintenance Treatment This program offers methadone maintenance to heroin-addicted prisoners and provides referrals to community-based treatment programs to encourage continued treatment during reentry. The program is rated Promising. The counseling + methadone group were significantly more likely to spend more days in treatment compared to the other groups. There were fewer positive urine drug tests for opioids and cocaine for the counseling + methadone group compared to those who received counseling only in prison.
Problem-Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places (Jersey City, NJ) The program is a focused policing strategy intended to reduce violent crime in high-crime locations through the modification of specific characteristics and situations that promote violence. The program is rated Promising. The citizen calls for service were significantly reduced at three of the five treatment locations. Reported criminal incidents were significantly reduced at two of the treatment places. Social and physical disorder were alleviated 91 percent.
Project EX A school-based tobacco cessation program for high school youths ages 14–19. The program is rated Promising. Students in the treatment groups were significantly more likely to have not used tobacco products in the previous 30 days compared to those in the control group.
Project Exile A crime reduction strategy in Richmond, Virginia implemented to deter former and would-be offenders from carrying and using firearms, with an overall goal of reducing firearm-related homicides. The project is rated Promising. Firearm-related homicides decreased significantly in the target area, compared with other U.S. cities where the program was not implemented.
Project Link An intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women. The program is rated Promising. Newborns of mothers enrolled in the program had significantly heavier mean birth weight; a longer gestational age; were significantly less likely to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit; and were less likely to have positive toxicology screens compared with infants of mothers who enrolled postpartum.
Project Northland A school and community intervention that targets children at an early age to prevent and reduce underage alcohol use. The program is rated Promising. The original project that was developed in a rural setting showed strong evidence of effectiveness (with alcohol use and binge drinking). Later adaptations, to an urban multiethnic setting, showed no effects on the targeted population. The evidence base suggests that this program may not be appropriate for implementation in all setting types.
Project Safe Neighborhoods (Chicago) This is a comprehensive antiviolence initiative that uses collaborative strategies to alter perceived costs and benefits of gun violence and is intended to reduce illegal gun offending among ex-offenders. The program is rated Promising. Treatment districts experienced a 37 percent reduction in quarterly homicide rates and fewer gun-related homicides. There was a modest reduction of aggravated battery/assaults in the treatment district areas.
Project Safe Neighborhoods (National Evaluation) This program is a multiple agency initiative to reduce gun violence in large cities through enhanced enforcement and deterrence. The program is rated Promising. Cities that received the program experienced a significant reduction in violent crime relative to control cities between 2000 and 2006.
Project Support A program designed to provide support to battered mothers and reduce conduct problems in their children. The program is rated Promising. Children in the program were less likely to exhibit clinical levels of conduct problems, were happier and had better social relationships. Program mothers were less likely to use aggressive child-management strategies, to return to their abusive partners or experience physical violence during follow-up; and they reported improved parenting skills.
Project Toward No Tobacco Use (Project TNT) A comprehensive, classroom-based curriculum designed to prevent or reduce tobacco use in fifth through ninth grade youths. The program is rated Promising. At a 2-year follow-up, participants reported lower trial and weekly use of cigarettes.
Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) An interactive school-based program designed to help high school youths resist substance use. The program is rated Promising. At follow-up, participants receiving the intervention reported significant reductions in hard drug use compared with comparison group students and reduced alcohol use among those who reported using alcohol prior to the intervention. In a separate study, subjects in a health educator-led program reported significant reduction in marijuana use compared to self-instructed an
Project Venture An outdoor experiential prevention program for at-risk American Indian youth that concentrates on American Indian cultural values to promote prosocial development and avoidance of alcohol and other drugs. The program is rated Promising. At follow-up, treatment youths demonstrated less growth in substance use on all outcome measures taken together than control participants. Both groups used alcohol, but it was less for the treatment group and it eventually plateaued.
PROmoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) This is a program delivery system focused on community-based collaboration and capacity building. The PROSPER model is designed to assist communities properly implement evidence-based initiatives that are then supported in the community and sustained over time. This program is rated Promising. Results indicate that students in the PROSPER intervention schools had significant reductions in the use of substances such as alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, and cigarettes; as well as in conduct problems.
Public Surveillance Cameras (Baltimore, Maryland) Public surveillance systems include a network of cameras and components for monitoring, recording, and transmitting video images. The ultimate goal of installing public surveillance cameras throughout the city was to reduce the historically high levels of crime. The program is rated Promising. Three of the four selected areas in Baltimore, Md., experienced significant declines in crime rates.
Queensland (Australia) Community Engagement Trial (QCET) The program tested whether police use of a specialized script (based on principles of procedural justice) during random breath-test traffic stops could improve perceptions of police and change people’s views about drinking and driving. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly change citizens’ views on police and drinking and driving, increase satisfaction and compliance with police, and strengthen perceptions of procedural justice and police fairness.
Raising Healthy Children A comprehensive and multifaceted school-based preventive intervention that promotes positive youth development by using a social developmental approach to target risk and protective factors. The program is rated Promising. The intervention had an effect on the frequency of alcohol and marijuana use, but no significant impact on prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use.
Random Drug Testing with Immediate Results and Immediate Sanctions The experiment was conducted to examine the efficacy of alternative methods of instant drug testing, and determine how the different methods affected rates of relapse and recidivism of parolees with substance abuse issues. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group (that had random drug testing with immediate results and immediate sanctions) had lower rates of relapse and recidivism; however, they were less likely to be admitted to treatment; and recidivism effects were short-lived.
Reading for Life (RFL) This is a diversion program in which juveniles ages 13–18, who have committed non-violent offenses, study works of literature and classic virtue theory in small groups, led by trained volunteer mentors. The goal is to foster moral development and reduce recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Participants had a lower chance of being prosecuted for any offense (including misdemeanors and felonies) and had fewer arrests than the comparison group.
Red Hook Community Justice Center: Criminal Court for Adults This is a problem-solving community court that seeks to prevent crime. One component of the program, the Criminal Court, hears misdemeanor cases and seeks to provide quick and meaningful sanctions to defendants in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. The program was rated Promising. The program had a statistically significant impact on recidivism rates for defendants.
Regulation of Built-In Home Security (Netherlands) In the Netherlands, a large-scale government intervention led to a regulation requiring built-in home security in all newly constructed homes. The program is rated Promising. The regulatory change reduced the risk of burglary by 26 percent compared with homes built in the years prior to the passage of the regulation. There were no significant effects on measures of attempted burglary.
Residential Student Assistance Program (RSAP) A substance abuse intervention program developed for high-risk adolescents living in residential facilities. The program is rated Promising. Intervention youth were significantly less likely to use alcohol and marijuana, and reported less other drug use compared to the comparison group.
Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (New York City) A universal, school-based intervention for elementary students that promotes violence prevention as well as positive social and emotional learning. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found higher levels of classroom instruction improved children's social-cognitive processes, reduced behavioral issues and decreased teacher's perceptions of youth problem behavior.
Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP) A school-based program designed to provide conflict-resolution strategies and skills to prevent violence to students in middle and junior high schools. The program is rated Promising. The experiment group had less disciplinary code violations related to violence in the 8th grade, showed significantly higher approval of nonviolence, and lower aggression at the 9-month follow-up.
Richmond (CA) Comprehensive Homicide Initiative A problem-oriented policing program that offered a broad collection of enforcement and non-enforcement strategies, including a middle school mentoring program, designed to reduce homicide in Richmond, California. This program is rated Promising. It had a significant impact on homicide reduction in Richmond.
Risk Detection/Executive Function Intervention This is a program for adolescent females with a history of violence/abuse and involvement in the child welfare system. The goal of the program was to reduce re-victimization in teen dating situations. The program used mindfulness-based, cognitive interventions to build skills for responding to risky situations and improving executive function (including reasoning and problem solving). The program is rated Promising. The intervention was shown to reduce sexual and physical re-victimization.
Rochester Resilience Project (RRP) A school-based intervention to improve the social-emotional and behavioral skills of young children (K – 3rd grade) at risk for mental health disorders and substance abuse. This program is rated Promising. The program had a significant, positive effect on measures of children’s task orientation, behavior control, assertiveness, and peer social skills. The program was also associated with a significant decline in the average numbers of suspensions and office disciplinary referrals.
Rockford Pulling Levers Drug Market Intervention A problem-oriented policing strategy that aims to combat drug markets and the problems associated with them, in a high- crime neighborhood, through a deterrence-based, pulling levers framework. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce nonviolent offenses in the target area, but not violent offenses.
Rural Education Achievement Project (REAP) This is a comprehensive, multilevel prevention program that places fourth graders in one of three different programs to teach competencies and skills to prevent later negative outcomes. Placement based on the on a student’s level of assessed risk. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the programs that included family and summer camps made significant improvements in social boding. All participants showed a decrease in externalized behaviors.
Safe Street Teams (Boston, MA) A place-based, problem-oriented policing strategy implemented by the Boston (Massachusetts) Police Department in response to a sudden increase in violent crimes. The program is rated Promising. The results showed that the intervention had significant reductions in total violent index crimes, robberies, and aggravated assaults over the 10-year study period; however, there were no significant reductions in homicides and sexual assaults.
Safer Cities Initiative A place-based policing intervention that targeted crime and disorder associated with homeless encampments. The program is rated Promising. For both the comparison and target areas, there was a significant decline in nuisance, property and violent crimes during the time of the initial pilot phase and an additional small decline after the full-scale program was implemented. However, further results showed a downward trend unique to the target area.
San Francisco (Calif.) Behavioral Health Court The court aims to reduce recidivism and connect defendants with community treatment services while considering the defendant’s mental illness and severity of the offense in disposition decisions. The program is rated Promising. The study showed participation was associated with positive results (even if a participant did not complete the entire program and graduate). Participants were less likely to be charged with a new offense and resulted in a longer time to a new violent charge.
San Juan County (N.M.) DWI First Offenders Program A program for offenders arrested for the first time for driving while intoxicated (DWI) that aims to reduce DWI rearrest rates. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group improved more than the participants in the control group did for all three measures of alcohol use (total consumption, drinking days, and average blood–alcohol content). However, the findings were not statistically significant for a reduction in DWI recidivism.
Schenectady Public Surveillance Project A crime prevention program seeking to impact crime and disorder through the installation of public surveillance cameras in one medium-sized city in the northeastern United States. The program is rated Promising. The installation of cameras led to significant reductions in total crime and total disorder in the target area. However, no significant impact was found on violent crime or property crime.
School-Based Mentoring Program for At-Risk Middle School Youth Offered one-to-one mentoring program to at-risk students in 7th to 9th grades in an urban middle school setting to reduce their discipline referrals and school absences and to improve their school connectedness. This program is rated Promising. The program was associated with a significant decline in the number of office disciplinary referrals and a significant increase in school connectedness. However, the program had no significant impact on unexcused absences.
Secured by Design, West Yorkshire (England) A program that encourages housing developers to design out crime at the planning or concept stages. The program is rated Promising. The findings revealed in the intervention areas that burglary rates experienced a downward trend there were improved feelings of safety and better visual disorder scores. However, repeat victimization rates were higher in the treatment areas.
Sexual Abuse: Family Education and Treatment Program (SAFE–T) A community-based program that provides sexual abuse-specific assessment, treatment, consultation, and long-term support to adolescent sexual offenders and their families. The program is rated Promising. At the 20-year follow-up, adolescents who received treatment were significantly less likely to be charged for a sexual reoffense, a nonsexual violent offense, a nonviolent offense, or any criminal reoffense.
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program (Albuquerque, N.M.) The program aims to provide specialized and coordinated services to victims of sexual assault during their first contact with the health care environment. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group had more referrals, spent less time receiving treatment than the control group spent in the emergency department; received more medical treatment; had higher levels of evidence collection; and had more reports to the police and prosecutions.
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program - Multisite The program uses specially trained nurses to provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for recent sexual assault victims in either hospital- or community-based clinic settings. The program is rated Promising. Across multiple sites, the results showed that sexual assault cases that were prosecuted following implementation of SANE were more likely to result in a guilty plea or conviction.
Shifting Boundaries A two-part intervention designed to reduce dating violence and sexual harassment among middle school youth by highlighting the consequences of this behavior for perpetrators and increasing faculty surveillance of unsafe areas. The program is rated Promising. The intervention groups had statistically significant outcome impacts, albeit with mixed results. The most important classroom activity was the hot spot mapping of unsafe areas that informed the schoolwide intervention.
SMART Leaders A 2-year booster program that teaches a broad spectrum of social and personal competence skills to help youths identify and resist peer and other social pressures to smoke, drink, and engage in sexual activity. The program is rated Promising. Both treatment groups (Stay SMART and the Stay SMART + Boosters group) reported lower drug use and cigarette-related behavior and more knowledge concerning drug use. Only the Stay SMART + Boosters group showed a reduction in alcohol-related behavior.
SNAP® Girls Formerly known as SNAP® Girls Connection, the program includes concurrent child and parent groups, as part of a multi-component intervention for girls with disruptive behaviors and their families. The program focuses on self-control, problem solving, and emotion regulation to improve pro-social skills and reduce disruptive behavior. The program is rated Promising. The girls in the treatment group displayed significantly lower levels of behavior problems than the girls in the comparison group.
Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program This is a prevention program targeted at violence, substance abuse, and related problem behaviors through developing an individual's social and decision-making skills. The program is rated Promising. The program was found to significantly reduce the stressors associated with a student’s transition into middle school.
Social Learning/Feminist Intervention This is a 12-session program for adolescent females with a history of exposure to violence/abuse and involvement in the child welfare system. The goal of the program was to reduce re-victimization in teen dating situations. The program used a health-promotion approach to help girls develop healthy relationships and to respond to abuse in their relationships. The program is rated Promising. The intervention was effective at reducing physical re-victimization, but not sexual re-victimization.
Sources of Strength This is a school-based, suicide prevention program designed to build socioecological-protective influences across a full student population, using youth opinion leaders from diverse social cliques to develop and deliver, with adult mentoring, messaging aimed at changing the norms and behaviors of their peers. This program is rated Promising. Peer leaders in the intervention schools showed significant improvements on perceptions and behaviors pertaining to suicide and on social connectedness.
South Dakota’s 24/7 Sobriety Project The program seeks to reduce the recidivism of offenders previously convicted of driving while under the influence of alcohol (DUI) through intensive testing and monitoring of drug and alcohol consumption. The main goal is to encourage sobriety of offenders 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. The program is rated Promising. The program led to significant reduction in repeat DUI and domestic violence arrests, but did not impact first-time DUI arrests or traffic crashes.
Special Needs Diversionary Program (SNDP) This diversion program provides intensive supervision and treatment for juvenile probationers with mental illness. This program is rated Promising. Rearrests within 1 year were significantly lower for program participants, compared with non-participants. Although SNDP did not significantly affect the time to rearrest, the diversion program had an overall positive impact on juvenile offenders with mental illness.
Spit Tobacco Intervention for Athletes An education program about the dangers of addiction and long-term use of using spit (smokeless) tobacco. It is targeted at young male athletes—especially baseball players—who use or are at risk of using spit tobacco. The program is rated Promising. There were mixed results on the intervention preventing the initiation and cessation of spit tobacco use.
Staff Training Aimed at Reducing Rearrest (STARR) A training program for federal community supervision officers providing direct service to offenders under supervision. The goal is to improve one-on-one officer-client interactions to reduce risk and recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Trained officers were twice as likely to capitalize on opportunities to use behavioral strategies that could help shape client behavior. Discussions about cognitions, peers or impulsivity were more likely to occur among officers in the experimental group.
Staying Connected with Your Teen A prevention program that targets substance abuse and problem behavior in adolescents by incorporating parent, youth, and family components. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group was significantly less accepting of substance use than they were prior to the program. African American teens in the treatment group showed a reduction in violent behavior, and were less likely to initiate substance use or sexual activity compared to African American teens in the control condition.
STEP (School Transitional Environment Program) A school organizational change initiative that seeks to decrease student anonymity and problem behavior, increase accountability, and enhance their ability to learn rules and expectations by improving the transitional learning environment. The program is rated Promising. Students in the program had better classroom behavior; improved grade point averages; experienced less transition-related stress; and had lower levels of psychological distress compared to the control group.
Stewards of Children An adult-focused child sexual abuse prevention training program. The training aims to educate adults (specifically child care professionals) to prevent, recognize, and react responsibly. The program is rated Promising. The training groups (in-person and web-based training combined) had higher knowledge scores for measures of child sexual abuse and a greater increase in prevention behaviors compared to the waitlist control group.
Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS) A job training program for probation officers to help them apply the risk-need-responsivity model with probationers to reduce recidivism. The program is rated Promising. The results of the study revealed significant changes in the officer population; but non-significant differences regarding offenders’ subsequent recidivism.
Structured Decision Making (SDM) This is a decision support system for case workers’ in child abuse/neglect cases. The system provides objective and structured assessments with safety and risk-based service recommendations. The program is rated Promising. Children served by agencies in pilot counties achieved permanency rates at a significantly higher rate than those in the comparison counties. Children who were returned home in the pilot areas were no more likely to reenter foster care than those in comparison counties.
Success for Kids An afterschool program that teaches children to access inner resources and build positive connections with others. The program is rated Promising. The teacher reports showed statistically significant reduction in attention problems, atypicality, hyperactivity, and withdrawal.
Success in Stages® Program An anti-bullying program that incorporated all students’ involved—victims, passive bystanders, and bullies. The program is rated Promising. One study found the treatment groups’ results diminished over time for bullying and victimization; but a treatment showed the effect of no longer being a passive bystander. A second study found that middle and high school student treatment groups reported becoming non-bullies, no longer being victims or bystanders.
Syracuse Family Development Research Program (FDRP) Comprehensive early childhood program aimed to develop child and family functioning through home visitation, parent training, and individualized day care. The program is rated Promising. Program youth were less likely to have records of delinquency or receive probation. Females performed at a higher grade average than the control group and had better school attendance. Program parents reported their children as having prosocial attitudes and behavior.
Taking Charge A group-based curriculum designed to help pregnant and parenting female students stay in school. The program is rated Promising. At the 6-week follow-up, the program had a statistically significant impact on the treatment group compared to the control group in attendance, grade averages, coping behavior and problem solving skills.
Target Hardening in Northumbria (England) A burglary reduction program that installs security devices in residential properties. The program is rated Promising. While there was an increase in residential burglary in the treatment area, it was smaller than the control and displacement buffer areas. Recorded crime data showed an increase of attempted burglary in the treatment area, but surveyed data showed a decline. There was evidence of displacement, and displacement to the target area in vehicle theft and burglary in other premises.
Targeted Gun Law Messaging This is a mail campaign intended to deter illegal firearm transactions in Los Angeles, Calif., using a letter outlining the regulations and laws surrounding firearm ownership. The program is rated Promising. Those who received a letter were more than twice as likely to report their firearms stolen than those who did not. The mail campaign did not appear to have an impact on whether the firearm became a crime gun or not.
Targeted Interventions for Corrections (TIC) Consists of six brief life-skill interventions to be used in a variety of correctional-based settings. The interventions address the core aspects of addiction treatment and recovery. The program is rated Promising. TIC significantly impacted measures of cognitive changes–knowledge, attitude, and psychological functioning–except criminal thinking.
TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling for Substance Users A cognitive technique for incorporating graphic visualization tools into the counseling process. The program is rated Promising. The mapping group had lower crime and less drug use; but reported lower self-esteem, lower confidence in decision-making, and more hostility than the comparison group. Although there was no statistically significant differences for participants with HIV risky behavior, those with more time in treatment had less dirty needle use.
Teaching Students to Be Peacemakers A school-based conflict resolution program aimed at teaching students to manage their conflicts through negotiation and mediation. The Program is rated Promising. Across all three studies, the program was found to increase students’ conflict resolution skills through their ability to practice both negotiation and mediation strategies.
Teenage Health Teaching Modules A comprehensive school health curriculum for grades 6 to 12 that addresses various health issues. The program is rated Promising. Participants showed a statistically significant increase in health knowledge compared to the control class. Student attitudes remained stable from pretest to posttest compared to a deterioration in attitudes in the control group. Program exposure resulted in high school students using less alcohol, drugs and cigarettes.
The Abuse Assessment (The Abuse Screen) An abuse assessment screening tool for medical staff to aid in the detection and referral of abuse in pregnant women. The program is rated Promising. After implementation, 88 percent of maternity medical records contained the assessment form. Once implemented, intervention clinics had a significantly higher rate of abuse reporting than the comparison. At 12 months, referrals were included in 53 percent of records compared to none prior to using the tool.
The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project A school-based prevention program, targeting 12 and 16 year olds, designed to prevent violence by enhancing conflict-resolution skills. The program is rated Promising. At follow-up, participants were using more pro-social verbal skills and had positive growth rates of peer support. Students not receiving the curriculum grew more accepting of aggression over time, while program participants maintained aggression tolerance levels.
The Peacemakers Program A school-based violence reduction intervention for grades 4 through 8. The program’s primary objectives were to prevent violence and improve interpersonal behavior among youth. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant decrease in self-reported measures of aggression; an increase in psychosocial skills; a decrease in disciplinary incidents; less involvement in conflict mediation; and fewer suspensions for violent behavior compared with the control group.
The RULER Approach The program is a multiyear classroom curriculum for kindergarten through eighth grade incorporating professional development for teachers, school staff, and leaders with literacy-based, skill-building, social–emotional learning programs. This program is rated Promising. The program had significant effects on emotional support, positive classroom climate, and emotion-focused interactions. However, there were no significant effects on negative classroom climate and classroom supportiveness.
The truth® Campaign A national smoking prevention campaign that uses advertisements with anti-tobacco messages targeted at youths ages 12 to 17 who are most at risk of smoking. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation found a reduction in smoking prevalence and a decreased risk of smoking initiation among youth.
The Urban Debate League for High School Students A competitive, social-policy debate program to advance academic achievement, community contributions, and life success of students in grades 9 to 12 in urban school districts. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to have a significant, positive effect on high school graduation and college readiness, as indicated by ACT scores.
The Women’s Program This is a sexual assault risk-reduction program that is designed to teach college women bystanders about sexual assault, characteristics of male perpetrators, and how to intervene. This program is rated Promising. Confidence in the ability and willingness to intervene increased significantly for the experimental group. However, acceptance of common “rape myths” did not differ between the control and experimental groups.
Thinking for a Change A cognitive–behavioral curriculum developed by the National Institute of Corrections that concentrates on changing the criminogenic thinking of offenders. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of offenders who recidivated between the treatment group and the control group. The control group was 57 percent more likely to be arrested during the follow-up period.
Too Good for Drugs - Middle School A school-based drug prevention program designed to reduce students’ intention to use alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, while promoting prosocial attitudes, skills, and behaviors.
Too Good for Violence A school-based violence prevention and character education program designed to improve student behavior and minimize aggression. The program is rated Promising. The program had positive effects on risk and protective factors related to student violence in third grade and factors related to alcohol, tobacco, and drug use and violence in grades 9 through 12.
Utah Juvenile Drug Courts Offers substance abuse treatment and programming for juveniles in an effort to reduce participants’ alcohol, drug and delinquency offenses. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce delinquency and criminal offenses, but not alcohol and other drug offenses.
Washington State’s Residential Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative This program is an alternative to incarceration for felony offenders with substance abuse problems. In lieu of confinement, offenders must successfully complete a residential, chemical-dependency treatment program in the community. The program is rated Promising. Residential DOSA was shown to significantly reduce overall recidivism rates compared with prison-based DOSA.
West Midlands (England) High-Crime-Causing Users (HCCU) An intensive community-based partnership between police and treatment providers in West Midlands that provided enhanced delivery and coordinated efforts and resources to high-risk offenders to reduce their offending behavior. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the average number of arrests for participants.
WITS Primary Program A community-based, schoolwide intervention aimed at children in grades 1 through 3 that targets socially competent behaviors and risks for peer victimization. The program was rated Promising. The program was shown to have significant positive effects on physical and relational victimization and social competence, but not on social responsibility or physical aggression.
Women’s Health CoOp (Pretoria, South Africa) A woman-focused HIV intervention designed to reduce sex risk behavior, substance use, and victimization among at-risk and underserved women, including female sex workers and drug users. The program is rated Promising. Non-sex workers in the woman-focused intervention reported a greater reduction in sexual abuse by a main sex partner; and the group’s sex workers had better outcomes than those in the standard intervention in drug use, condom use during last intercourse, and physical abuse.
Woodrock Youth Development Program A combination of intervention strategies, including peer mentoring and support systems, to prevent substance abuse among at-risk and racially diverse youth. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with significantly less drug use among both younger and older youth in the program.
Wyman’s Teen Outreach Program® (TOP®) This is a school-based program to prevent school failure and teen pregnancy by engaging teens for at least 9 months in curriculum-guided discussion and community service learning. The program is rated Promising. Participants experienced significantly lower levels of teenage pregnancy, course failure, and school suspension than students in the control group.
Youth Relationships Project This was a community-based prevention program that targeted youths who were at risk of becoming involved in abusive relationships. The goals of the program were to increase youths’ awareness of the signs of an abusive relationship and teach them how to develop healthy, non-abusive relationships with dating partners. The program was rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce abuse perpetration and victimization over time.
A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST) Program This in-school smoking prevention program was designed to spread and sustain norms of non-smoking behavior among 12–13 year olds, using influential peer opinion leaders. The program is rated No Effects. Youths who received the intervention did not differ significantly from youths who did not receive the intervention in their odds of smoking in the last week, at 2 years post-intervention.
All Stars™ All Stars™ is a character-based approach to preventing high-risk behaviors such as substance use, violence, and premature sexual activity in teens ages 11 to 15. The program is rated No Effects. The program evaluation found no statistical significance between the control and experiment group for violence, substance abuse or sexual activity.
Brief Instrumental School-Based Mentoring Program A school-based intervention designed for at-risk middle school students that aims to improve academic performance, promote school connectedness, and life satisfaction and to decrease disciplinary actions. This program is rated as No Effects. The program did not significantly affect students’ English, reading, or science grades; measures of teacher or school connectedness; tardiness; or school absences. However, the program significantly increased students’ math grades and life satisfaction.
Broken Windows/Public Order Policing in High Crime Areas (CA) The program was implemented in three midsized cities near the Los Angeles, California area, with the goal of examining effects on residents’ fear of crime, perceptions of collective efficacy and police legitimacy, and actual and perceived levels of crime and disorder. The program is rated No Effects. Findings revealed no significant impacts on any of the dependent variables, suggesting no indication of either beneficial effects or “backfire” effects in targeted areas.
Bronx (NY) Mental Health Court This is a program that seeks to divert mentally ill, misdemeanor and felony adult offenders out of the justice system and into treatment. The goals of the diversion program are to ensure participants receive treatment for their mental disorders and do not have future contact with the justice system. The program is rated No Effects. Overall, there was no significant impact on re-arrests or re-convictions.
California’s Repeat Offender Prevention Program (ROPP) An intensive program targeting young offenders at high risk of becoming chronic delinquents using intensive supervision and wraparound services to address school behavior, substance use, and high-risk behaviors. The program is rated No Effects. The control and treatment group showed no statistically significant differences for warrants and days in custody, new offenses or education outcomes.
Camera Use to Prevent Crime in Commuter Parking Facilities (Washington, D.C.) A crime prevention strategy designed to reduce crime in Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority parking facilities through the introduction of digital cameras at the exits of the parking facilities to capture images of patrons’ license plates as they exited the facility. The program is rated as No Effects. Crime rates (including car-related, property, and violent crimes) remained at pre-camera levels in parking facilities.
CASASTART A community-based, intensive case management model that aims to prevent drug use and delinquency among high-risk adolescents, ages 11 to 13. This program is rated No Effects. It had a few significant effects on behavioral outcomes, but did not have a significant effect on youths’ drug use or involvement in property crime. An evaluation showed negative effects of the program on prevalence and frequency behavioral measures for female participants.
Chicago Parent Program A culturally relevant parent-training intervention for black and Hispanic parents of children ages 2 to 5 years from low- income, urban areas. The program’s goals are to promote parenting skills and competency and prevent or reduce problem behaviors in children. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluations had mixed findings. Overall, the evidence suggests the program did not have a significant impact on parenting skills, parenting competency, or problem behavior in children.
Child FIRST The program is a comprehensive, home-based, therapeutic intervention for high-risk families with children ages 6–36 months. The program is rated No Effects. Although children in the program showed significantly reduced externalizing problems, there was no significant impact on other outcomes, including internalizing problems, dysregulation, parent–child dysfunction, and parent distress. Overall, the preponderance of evidence suggests the program did not have an impact on children or parents.
CHOICE A voluntary afterschool program for middle school aged youths to inform them about substance use and prevent them from starting or continuing alcohol use. The program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have some effect on delaying the initiation of alcohol use but no effect on other measures of past or future alcohol use.
Comer’s School Development Program A school-based intervention that focuses on improving school climate and student achievement. The program is rated No Effects. The evidence base shows that the program had significant impacts on student reports of lack of anger and acting out. However, there were mixed results on disapproval of misbehavior and substance use, and no significant differences found for petty misbehaviors or friends’ problem behaviors.
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol A community organizing program designed to reduce youth access to alcohol by changing community and law enforcement policies, attitudes, and practices, and by targeting commercial and noncommercial availability of alcohol to underage drinkers. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found no significant impact on youth alcohol use, alcohol sales, or access to alcohol between the treatment and control groups.
Culturally Focused Batterer Counseling (Pittsburgh, PA) A cognitive–behavioral counseling program specifically designed for African American men arrested for domestic violence. The program is rated No Effects. The program had no significant impact on program completion or self-reported reassault rates. The study showed that men who participated in the culturally focused counseling option were twice as likely as men who participated in the racially mixed counseling option to be rearrested for domestic violence.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) A school-based drug use prevention program taught by police officers, starting in the sixth grade and extending through the senior year of high school. The program is rated No Effects. There was no statistically significant impact on drug use or attitude towards drug use compared with the comparison group.
Ending Violence A school-based program, taught over 3 school days by attorneys, in which students learn warning signs for dating violence and how the law works in relation to domestic violence. This program is rated No Effects. Results were mixed for all items except help-seeking and knowledge about dating violence and the law, in which the treatment group exhibited positive significant differences compared with the control group.
Families Facing the Future An intensive family program for parents in methadone treatment and their children that combines relapse prevention, parenting skills training and home-based case management services. The program is rated No Effects. Although studies evaluating the effectiveness of the program on the behaviors of drug-using parents and their children showed some positive findings, the overall preponderance of evidence suggested null effects.
Gang Reduction Program (Richmond, VA) A comprehensive, multiyear initiative to reduce gang crime and violence among youth through a combination of strategies. This program is rated No Effects. The program did not have a significant effect on drug-related incidents or offenses, serious violent incidents or offenses, or school dropout rates in the target area. Additionally, the program did not have a significant effect on gang-related incidents, school attendance, or graduation rates in the target area.
Helping Women Recover Program (in a Drug Court Setting) A gender-responsive program designed to treat drug-addicted female offenders in a drug court setting. The program intends to specifically address the needs of female addicts and treat symptoms identified as distinct to female pathways to criminality and drug involvement. This program is rated No Effects. Female offenders assigned to gender-specific treatment did not display any significant differences in number of arrests and reports of drug use than those assigned to mixed-gender treatment.
Hot Spots Policing (Jacksonville, FL) A geographically focused policing strategy intended to reduce violent crime in high-crime areas using problem-oriented policing and directed patrol techniques. The program is rated No Effects. There was a significant reduction in nondomestic violent crime (i.e., street violence) in hot spots that were assigned to the problem-oriented policing condition, but no significant reductions in violent crime, property crime, and calls for service.
JOBSTART A school and community-based program designed to increase academic skills and job placement among economically disadvantaged youths with poor reading skills and low job prospects. The program is rated No Effects. The treatment group did not have significantly different outcomes than the control group across most outcome measures. The researchers noted that the resources devoted to JOBSTART exceeded the benefits produced.
Juvenile Transfer to Adult Court (Pennsylvania) Transfer of serious and violent juveniles from juvenile court to adult court based on criteria, such as age, seriousness of offense, and use of a deadly weapon. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that transferring juveniles to adult court had no impact on measures of arrests.
Kansas Senate Bill 123 (Alternative Sentencing Policy for Non-Violent Drug Possession Offenders) The Kansas state Senate Bill established a program that provided mandatory community-based drug treatment for nonviolent offenders convicted of a preliminary offense for drug possession. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence seemed to suggest that Kansas SB 123 did not significantly affect measures of criminal behavior.
Keep Cool...Start at School A social, cognitive–behavioral treatment program that targeted children ages 8-12 who exhibited disruptive or aggressive behavior and conduct disorder. The program is rated No Effects. Overall, the evidence from the evaluation found that students who participated in the intervention did not differ significantly from those students in the waitlist control group on measures of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and externalization of behaviors.
License Plate Recognition Technology (as a Crime Deterrent) The vehicle-scanning device deployed by law enforcement is used to detect wanted vehicles (such as those reported stolen or missing). The program is rated No Effects. The technology did not have a general deterrent effect on all crimes or on offense-specific crimes (e.g., auto theft/theft from auto and auto-Related Crimes).
Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence (SFA) A multicomponent school-based life skills training curriculum that teaches behavioral and social techniques for middle school students to help resist alcohol and drug use. The program is rated No Effects. The research found mixed results among the various outcome measures based on the 1-year follow-up data of schools that received the training compared to the control schools. There was a lack of evidence regarding the program’s ability to reduce tobacco use or other illicit substances.
Mandatory–Random Student Drug Testing Programs designed to supplement existing school-based prevention interventions and have two primary goals: 1) deter students from substance use and 2) identify students with substance use problems and refer them to counseling or treatment services. The program is rated No Effects. The program implemented at the seven grantee school districts had no effects on student- or school-level outcomes.
Minnesota’s Affordable Homes Program A prison work crew program designed to increase the availability of affordable low-income housing while training inmates in construction-industry-specific occupational skills. The program is rated No Effects. The program had some significant effect on program participants’ likelihood of gaining employment in the construction field following release from prison. However, there were no significant effects on gaining employment in other fields, rearrests, reconvictions, and reincarceration.
Motivational Interviewing for Juvenile Substance Abuse A counseling method that is designed to address the problem of ambivalence and encourage the motivation for behavioral change. The program is rated No Effects. Although both studies reported some positive outcomes and significant findings, the preponderance of evidence showed that the program had no effect in changing the targeted behaviors of juveniles. There were no statistically significant differences on most of the measured outcomes between the treatment and control groups.
Moving to Opportunity Demonstration Program A housing mobility demonstration program intended to help move families from high-poverty public housing to low-poverty private housing to improve their lives. This program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have no significant long-term effects on violent, property, drug, or general crime arrests.
Multimodal Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Program A community-based prisoner reentry program that provides substance abuse treatment to medium-to high-risk offenders placed on 24-month community correctional supervision. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program had no significant effect on program participants on rearrest, reincarceration, and relapse.
National Guard ChalleNGe Program An intensive residential program that provides training and services, including structured one-on-one mentoring, to at-risk youth (ages 16 to 18 years). This program is rated No Effects. The program had a significant, positive impact on employment and GED attainment among participating youth as compared with control group youth. However, the program had no significant effect on youths’ frequency of arrests, marijuana or other illegal drug use, delinquent behavior, or psychological distress.
New South Wales (Australia) Prison Methadone Maintenance Program This program aims to reduce recidivism, prevent the spread of blood-borne viral infections (HIV and hepatitis) in prison, and encourage continuation of treatment in the community following release. The program is rated No Effects. Overall, the evidence did not find a significant difference between the prison methadone maintenance treatment group and the control group on measures of mortality, reincarceration, hepatitis C virus seroconversion and treatment retention.
New York Integrated Domestic Violence Courts This program is a problem-solving court that is part of a unified “one family-one judge” model, which means all criminal, family, and matrimonial cases involving the same family are handled by one judge. This program is rated No Effects. There were no significant differences in re-arrests and conviction rates when comparing the IDV court cases with traditional family court cases.
New York’s Criminal Domestic Violence Courts The program is a problem-solving court that operate a specialized caseload for domestic violence-related cases only, and for which eligibility is determined on a case-by-case basis. The program is rated No Effects. The criminal domestic violence courts in New York significantly reduce case-processing time, but there was no significant impact on recidivism, convictions rates, and sentences that involve jail or prison.
Parent-Child Development Center A parent training program targeting low-income minority families with children, between 2 months and 3 years of age designed to reduce educational failure and improve child behavior. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence indicates that the program had no effects on children’s behavior.
Parents as Teachers An early childhood parent education and family support program serving families from pregnancy until their children enter kindergarten. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program had no effect on improving child or parent outcomes.
Peer Group Connection (PGC) Program A high school transition program that targets 9th-grade students in urban high schools who are at risk of dropping out. The goal is to improve high school graduation rates among participating youths by having junior and senior high school students serve as peer mentors. This program is rated No Effects since the program did not improve students’ high school graduation rates overall. However, a significant positive effect on the graduation rate among male students only was detected.
Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (PADOC) Therapeutic Community A prison-based drug treatment program based on the principles of therapeutic communities with the overall goal of reducing offenders’ risk of drug relapse and recidivism once they return to the community. The program is rated No Effects. The program did not significantly impact participants’ rates of rearrests or drug relapse, and only had a small effect on reincarceration rates.
Phoenix (Arizona) Homicide Clearance Project The program's primary goal was to improve homicide clearance rates by increasing investigative time through the transfer of four crime scene specialists to the homicide unit. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found no statistically significant differences on the outcomes.
Police Foot Patrol–Philadelphia 2010 This strategy is aimed at reducing crime at violent-crime hot spots in Philadelphia, Pa., through police foot patrols. It involved having veteran officers patrol areas (an average of 3 miles of streets) during one shift per day. This program is rated No Effects. Relative to the control areas, increasing foot patrols at violent-crime hot spots had no impact on violent crimes, violent felonies, or citizens’ perceptions of crime and safety.
Post-Rape Video Intervention A program developed as an early post-rape intervention to help reduce both the distress associated with a forensic rape examination and the increased risk rape victims have of developing later psychopathology and substance use. The program is rated No Effects. The evidence revealed null effects with no significant differences in alcohol or hard drug use between the groups. Women who had no prior history of rape reported a higher frequency of PTSD in the short-term and no effect on depression.
Prime Time The program aims to reduce precursors of teen pregnancy, including sexual risk behaviors, involvement in violence, and disconnection from school. The program is rated No Effects. There were mixed findings in the evaluations of Prime Time. There were some small significant effects on a few outcomes, but there were no significant differences between groups on the majority of the outcomes. Overall, the preponderance of evidence suggests the program did not have a significant impact on girls.
Private Prison Confinement (Minnesota) Because of bed shortages created by an increase in the prison population in Minnesota in the first few years following 2000, eligible male inmates were transferred to a private prison facility to serve their time. The program was rated No Effects. Confinement in the private prison resulted in significant increases in the risk of rearrest and reconviction of inmates, and made no significant impact on reincarceration for a new offense or revocation for a technical violation.
Probation Case Management (San Francisco, Calif.) The program is a case management intervention for drug-involved women offenders. The model incorporates elements of substance abuse treatment, intensive supervision probation and case management. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found there were no statistically significant differences between the probation case management treatment group and the comparison group.
Project ALERT A school-based program for seventh and eighth graders that targets substance use beliefs and behaviors. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of the evidence shows that the program had no sustained effects in changing behaviors.
Project Greenlight An institution-based transitional services demonstration program that was designed to be a short, intensive intervention that could serve a greater number of offenders with reentry services at a lower cost. The program is rated No Effects. Participants who had the most extensive prerelease programming actually had worse outcomes when compared with those who had some prerelease programming through the existing Transitional Services Program and a control group that received no transitional service
Public School Choice Lottery (Charlotte–Mecklenburg, N.C., School District) An open-enrollment school choice plan in the Charlotte–Mecklenburg, N.C., School District designed to offer slots at oversubscribed schools through a lottery-based system. The program is rated No Effects. Winning the lottery did not significantly impact nontraffic arrests, felony arrests, drug felonies, property felonies, or violent felonies. While winning the lottery impacted middle school students in terms of fewer total days incarcerated, no impact was found for high school students.
Reconnecting Youth A school-based prevention program that targets underachieving students at risk of dropping out. The program is rated No Effects. The program had a significant negative effect on conventional peer bonding at the immediate post-intervention follow-up and significant negative effects on conventional peer bonding and peer high-risk behavior at the 6-month follow-up.
Red Hook Community Justice Center: Family Court for Juveniles This is a problem-solving community court that seeks to prevent crime. One component of the program, the Family Court, hears juvenile delinquency cases involving youth aged 15 or younger, with the goal of responding to the specific needs of youth in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. The program was rated No Effects. The program had no significant effect on recidivism rates for juvenile defendants.
Rochester (N.Y.) Domestic Violence Court Judicial Monitoring A program designed to provide judicial monitoring by the court and involved frequent court appearances by the offender before a judge. The goal was to ensure compliance with court-mandated program requirements and other court orders, deter future violence and re-abuse of victims. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found that the judicial monitoring made no impact on rearrests, on mandated program attendance or completion.
SafERteens A 35-minute therapy session delivered to adolescents who receive care in emergency rooms designed to reduce subsequent violent behavior and alcohol use. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence shows that the program had no effects in changing behaviors.
SCARE Program This is a school-based anger and aggression management program for adolescents, especially those at risk for academic and behavioral problems. The program is rated No Effects. The study found no statistically significant differences between the treatment and the comparison group in any of the three anger behavior measures.
School Health Center Healthy Adolescents Relationships Program (SHARP) A high school-based, relationship abuse prevention program. The goal of the program was to identify students’ knowledge of abusive behaviors and teach them about relationship abuse and resources for its prevention. The program was rated No Effects. There was no significant impact on recognition, use, and knowledge of adolescent relationship abuse resources, and intentions to intervene, but participants had significantly greater increases in recognition of sexual coercion.
Second Responders Program (Redlands, CA) The program model enlists second responders to make home visits to try to help victims find long-term solutions to help repeat incident victims of family violence including intimate partner abuse, abuse within families or households, and elder abuse. The program is rated No Effects. Overall, the evidence found no statistically significant differences between the treatment and control groups on prevalence of and frequency of new domestic incidents and time to failure.
Sembrando Salud A culturally sensitive, community-based tobacco- and alcohol-use prevention program specifically adapted for migrant Hispanic adolescents and their families. The program is rated No Effects. The program made little impact on the measured outcomes of smoking and drinking or parent-child communication and attitudes.
Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) A collaborative Federal effort that concentrated on improving criminal justice, employment, education, health, and housing outcomes of adult and juvenile offenders upon their release from incarceration. The program is rated No Effects. The overall results of the evaluation did not show significant differences between participants and non–participants using measures of housing, substance use, and criminal behavior/recidivism for adult male, female offenders and juvenile male offenders.
Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program A rape prevention program for college students, which was designed to teach about the prevalence of sexual assault, distinguish between rape myths and facts, identify risky situations, and teach techniques that women can use in a risky situation. The program was rated No Effects. The program had a small effect on self-efficacy, and a small mixed-effect on self-protective dating behaviors, but did not impact sexual victimization, sexual aggression, attitudes toward women, or rape empathy.
SMART Team A multimedia software program that engages young teenagers in learning new skills to resolve conflicts and avoid violence. The program is rated No Effects. There were no significant differences in aggressive behavior between the treatment and control group.
Social Aggression Prevention Program (SAPP) This is a school-based, small group program designed to prevent social aggression and increase empathy, prosocial behavior, and social problem-solving skills among fifth-grade females. The program is rated No Effects. While program participants self-reported more pro-social responses to hypothetical scenarios, there were no significant changes in behaviors as described by teachers and peers.
STARS (Start Taking Alcohol Risks Seriously) for Families A health promotion program for preventing alcohol use among at-risk middle and junior high school youths, aiming to postpone alcohol use until adulthood. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in their alcohol use or frequency of use at the 1-year follow-up.
Supporting Adolescents with Guidance and Employment (SAGE) A violence prevention program targeted at African American male adolescents living in Durham, N.C. which sought to reduce the disproportionate rate of violence among this population through a multifaceted community-based approach, including an Afrocentric guidance and instructional approach with a mentoring aspect. This program is rated No Effects. The program did not have a significant impact on participating youths’ problem, violent, or other-risky behaviors.
Taking Charge of Your Life A school-based universal substance abuse prevention program targeted toward middle school youths. The program is rated No Effects. The outcome evaluation found that the program had negative effects on student participants. Participants actually had worse outcomes than the control group.
Tax Compliance Experiment (Israel) A Tax Compliance Experiment was conducted in Israel and sought to test whether taxpayer compliance could be increased by mailing two different types of letters to incorporated taxpayers: a deterrent letter or moral persuasive letter. The program is rated No Effects. The deterrence and moral persuasion approach did not significantly impact corporations’ likelihood of paying taxes, accurately reporting gross sales, or accurately reporting tax deductions.
The GREAT School Program A school-based intervention to promote problem-solving skills, self-efficacy for nonviolence, and goals and strategies supporting nonviolence. The program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have no effect on measures of aggression and nonviolent behaviors.
The Pathways Home Foster Care Reunification Intervention This is a preventive intervention intended to reunite children returning home to their parents after their first stay in foster care. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program does not impact parent encouragement, problem behaviors or foster care reentry.
Three Data Driven Supervision Protocols for Parole Violations (Georgia) In this program, new supervision protocols for substance abuse, joblessness, and chronic violators were created based on data gathered on parolee behavior and parole officer responses. The program is rated No Effects. There was no significant impact on overall arrests or measures of recidivism. In fact, the treatment group had significantly more arrests for a new misdemeanor offense than the comparison group.
Too Good for Drugs - Elementary School A school-based drug prevention program designed to reduce students’ intention to use alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, while promoting prosocial attitudes, skills, and behaviors. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program had limited to no effect on program participants at the 4-month follow-up period.
Transitional Case Management A case management intervention that emphasized the client’s strengths, previous accomplishments, and provided expanded case management services during an inmate’s transition from incarceration to the community. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation did not find statistically significant differences in treatment, other services received, or behavioral outcomes (including any drug use, any arrests, and HIV risk behaviors (i.e. sex without a condom)) for the treatment or control group.
Tri-Ministry Study A school-based trial that incorporated three programs: a Classwide Social Skills Program, Connections Partner Reading Program, and social skills combined with partner reading program. The goal was to reduce and prevent behavioral maladjustment. The program is rated No Effects. There were some modest effects on measures of externalizing problems. But there were no significant effects on measures of inappropriate classroom behavior, teacher-rated social skills, and parent-rated social skills.
Tribes An intensive universal prevention strategy for elementary students that aims to use a positive learning environment to build resiliency, improve social skills, and enhance academic achievement in children. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program had no effect on reducing aggressive and antisocial behavior and made a detrimental impact on girls’ academic performance.
Weed and Seed (Miami, Fla.) This is a community-based approach to reducing and preventing crime while revitalizing the community. The program is rated No Effect. There was no significant reduction in violent offenses in the Liberty City treatment area after the crackdown, but reductions were observed in the control and displacement catchment (buffer) areas.
Youth-Nominated Support Team-Version II (YST-II) Standard treatments for suicidal adolescents (ages 13-17) were supplemented with social support from caring adults. The goal was to reduce youths’ suicidal ideations, depression severity, and feelings of hopelessness and to improve their mood-related adaptive functioning. This program is rated No Effects. The program had no significant impact on participants’ suicidal ideation, depression, negative attitudes about the future, or parent-reported functional impairment.