Promising - One study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date: This profile was posted on May 08, 2018
This is an adult reentry program designed to reduce recidivism among high-risk male offenders who were previously released from a state prison but returned to prison for violating conditions of their supervised release. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to have a statistically significant effect on reducing revocation and reconviction; however, it did not have a statistically significant effect on reducing rearrests and reincarceration.
Program Goals/Target Population
High-Risk Revocation Reduction (HRRR) is an enhanced, service delivery program aimed at high-risk adult male release violators (RVs) in Minnesota. RVs are offenders who were previously released from a state prison but returned to prison for violating conditions of their supervised release. The primary goal of the program is to reduce recidivism.
Participants are eligible for the HRRR program if they meet the following criteria: 1) are adult male offenders; 2) are located at a participating facility for the entirety of their confinement; 3) have at least 60 days of confinement time remaining at the time of selection, and not more than 180 days of total confinement time; 4) have at least 150 days of community supervision remaining after release; and 5) have no new pending sentences or a serious pending charge. The program focuses on adult males because they differ from adult females in terms of having a higher prison population, reentry services received, and length of prison sentences. The HRRR program also enrolls sex offenders and offenders who were in intensive supervised release, which is the most restrictive form of community supervision in Minnesota.
The HRRR program provides RVs with case planning at least 60 days prior to release. Services last for 6 months to a year after an RV’s release into the community. Prior to release from prison, RVs are assigned a reentry coordinator, community supervision agent, and an institutional case manager. Participants meet with a representative from each service area, including housing, employment, domestic violence prevention, mentoring, and transportation assistance.
After the reentry coordinator contacts the RV, a transition accountability plan is developed. This includes specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely (SMART) goals based on the RV’s case file, discussions with the RV, and a risk and needs assessment. Prior to the RV’s release from prison, the RV’s reentry coordinator, institutional case manager, and community supervision agent work together to determine a specific transition plan from prison to the community. Services provided by the HRRR program include
- Housing: Transitional housing for RVs is provided at certain designated facilities for up to 75 days. Some participants are also eligible for cash assistance for housing.
- Employment: Subsidized employment at designated work sites in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area is provided for participants for up to 16 weeks. Work readiness assistance, referrals to nonsubsidized employment opportunities, and career training programs are provided for up to one year after release.
- Domestic violence prevention: Life skills programming is provided weekly for all participants for up to one year after release. The classes focus on family violence prevention, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and prosocial skills. This class is open to all participants.
- Mentoring: Group mentoring sessions are offered at the community hub once a week.
- Transportation assistance: Participants are offered up to three free passes for the Minneapolis–St. Paul public transportation system within the first year of release.
- Access to the community hub: Access to a facility in Minneapolis allows RVs to meet with their reentry coordinators, community supervision agents, and representatives. Substance abuse programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and life skills programming, are also available at the community hub.
Clark (2015) found that the High-Risk Revocation Reduction (HRRR) treatment group was 28 percent less likely to have a new revocation, compared with the control group. This finding was statistically significant.
The HRRR treatment group had a 26 percent lower rate of rearrests, compared with the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant.
The program had a statistically significant impact on reducing reconviction for the treatment group, compared with the control group. HRRR participants experienced a 42 percent reduction in risk of a reconviction.
The HRRR treatment group had a 34 percent lower rate of reincarceration, compared with the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant.
Clark (2015) used a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of the High-Risk Revocation Reduction Reentry (HRRR) program on recidivism. The trial took place in four counties (Anoka, Dakota, Hennepin, and Ramsey) in Minnesota and involved adult male release violators (RVs), defined as offenders who were previously released from a state prison but returned to prison for violating conditions of their supervised release. Data was collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow up.
Participants were randomly assigned to either the treatment group (n =162), who received the HRRR program, or to the control group (n =77), who received standard release planning by case managers. The treatment group was largely made up of minorities (68 percent) with an average age of 36 years. Participants in the treatment group were charged with criminal sexual offenses (28 percent), person crime offenses (26 percent), DWI offenses (17 percent), drug offenses (12 percent), and property offenses (4 percent). The control group was also largely made up of minorities (74 percent) with an average age of 36 years. Participants in the control group were charged with criminal sexual offenses (26 percent), person crime offenses (29 percent), DWI offenses (14 percent), drug offenses (9 percent), and property offenses (10 percent). The treatment and control groups differed in terms of percentage of racial/ethnic minorities in the sample and percentage of property offenders. But there were no other statistically significant differences between the groups at baseline.
A survival analysis using a Cox regression model was used to analyze the impact of HRRR on recidivism. Recidivism was measured according to the following: 1) revocation for a technical violation of supervised release, 2) rearrests, 3) felony reconviction, and 4) reincarceration. Reincarceration information was obtained from the Corrections Offender Management System and rearrests and reconviction data was obtained from the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. No subgroup analyses were conducted.
There is no cost information available for this program.
Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)
These sources were used in the development of the program profile:Study 1
Clark, Valerie A. 2015. “Making the Most of Second Chances: An Evaluation of Minnesota’s High-Risk Revocation Reduction Reentry Programs.” Journal of Experimental Criminology