Promising - More than one study
Date: This profile was posted on January 24, 2018
This is a preschool-based program designed to strengthen teachers’ classroom-management strategies and develop children’s social and problem-solving skills. The program is rated Promising. Across multiple measures, there was a statistically significant reduction in conduct problems and increase in prosocial behavior among participating children, compared with non-participating children. However, some measures showed no statistically significant effect of the program.
The Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management (IY–TCM) program is a prevention program designed to strengthen teachers’ classroom-management strategies and provide an early intervention for children with conduct problems. The goals include improving teacher-student relationships, increasing teacher competencies in supporting students in the classroom, and developing students’ social and problem-solving skills.
Target Population & Program Components
The IY–TCM program targets teachers as well as other school staff (such as principals) who work with children 3 to 7 years of age. The program is delivered to a group of teachers for one full-day session per month over a period of 5 to 6 months to allow teachers the opportunity to practice the learned skills in the classroom. Specific skills taught to teachers include the use of collaborative and experiential learning, individual goal-setting and self-monitoring, and building teachers’ self-efficacy. Additionally, there is a focus on teachers’ cognitions, behavior and emotions, and on their ability to generalize the skills learned.
In the program, teachers identify key classroom-management skills through discussion, observations of videotapes, examples of classroom situations, role-play rehearsal, and classroom-based practice between sessions. Feedback is provided at the start of each session, and verbal and written assignments are reviewed for teachers. The five sessions include the following:
- Session 1
- Topic of Morning — Building positive relationships with students
- Topic of Afternoon — Proactive teacher: Preventive approaches
- Session 2
- Topic of Morning — Teacher attention, praise, and encouragement
- Topic of Afternoon — Teacher coaching, child-directed play, and friendship skills
- Session 3
- Topic of Morning — Motivating students through incentives
- Topic of Afternoon — Dialogic reading
- Session 4
- Topic of Morning — Decreasing inappropriate behavior
- Topic of Afternoon — Decreasing inappropriate behavior (continued)
- Session 5
- Topic of Morning — Teaching children to be socially competent
- Topic of Afternoon — Teaching children to be socially competent (continued)
Observations of Child Behavior: Conduct Problems
Baker-Henningham and colleagues (2012) found that the Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management (IY–TCM) program in the Kingston, Jamaica preschools led to statistically significant reductions in observed conduct problems for children in the intervention group, compared with children in the control group.
Observations of Child Behavior: Friendship Skills
The IY–TCM program led to statistically significant increases in observed friendship skills for children in the intervention group, compared with children in the control group.
Teacher-Reported Child Behavior Difficulties
The IY–TCM program led to statistically significant reductions in teacher-reported, child behavior difficulties for intervention group children, compared with control group children.
Parent-Reported Child Behavior Difficulties
The IY–TCM program led to statistically significant reductions in parent-reported, child behavior difficulties for intervention group children, compared with control group children.
Teacher Negatives to Child
Hutchings and colleagues (2013) found that teachers in the IY–TCM intervention group in Wales, showed statistically significant reductions in levels of negatives at postintervention, compared with the control group teachers.
Child Negatives to Teacher
There was a statistically significant reduction in measures of child negatives to teachers in the intervention group, compared with the control group children.
There was no statistically significant effect on measures of children’s noncompliance.
There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of children’s compliances to commands in the intervention group children, compared with control group children.
Child Deviant Behavior
There was no statistically significant effect on measures of children’s deviant behavior.
Child Off-Task Behavior
There was a statistically significant reduction in measures of child off-task behavior in the intervention group children, compared with control group children.
Child Prosocial Behavior
There was no statistically significant effect on measures of children’s prosocial behavior.
Teacher Total Commands
There was a significant reduction in teacher commands to children in the intervention group, compared with teachers in the control group.
Baker-Henningham and colleagues (2012) conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of 24 community preschools in the inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, during the 2009–2010 school year. The preschools were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management (IY–TCM) training (n=12) or to a control group (n=12). The intervention group schools included 37 classrooms and 959 children, while the control group schools included 36 classrooms and 955 children.
Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for inclusion. The total sample comprised 225 children ages 3 to 6 years. There were 113 children in the intervention group and 112 children in the control group. The average age of children in the intervention group was 4.2 years, and 67 percent were boys. The average age of the control group was also 4.2 years, and 71 percent were boys. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on any baseline characteristics.
Child outcomes were measured using observations of in-class child behavior, as well as teacher and parent reports of child behavior. For the observations of child behavior, within each class, three children were observed for 5 minutes each on a rotational basis for a total of 15 minutes per day, per child, over 4 days. This resulted in a total of 1 hour of observation. Event recording was used to count aggressive/destructive behaviors (such as hitting or pushing) and friendship skills (such as sharing) and was expressed as a frequency per hour. For teacher- and parent-reported child behavior, the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) was used to measure child conduct problems; Connor’s Global Index was used to measure hyperactivity and attention difficulties; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to measure behavior difficulties and prosocial skills; and the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale (PKBS) was used to measure child social skills. Data was collected at baseline (October–November 2009) and at postintervention (May–June 2010).
The impact of the IY–TCM program on continuous outcome measures was examined using multilevel multiple regression models. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using baseline scores for missing data at postintervention. No subgroup analyses were conducted.
Hutchings and colleagues (2013) used a single-blind, stratified randomized controlled trial of six intervention and six control classrooms, in both rural and urban areas, in the county of Gwynedd in northwest Wales. The schools were randomly assigned to the Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management (IY–TCM) training or to a control group.
Twelve classrooms and a total of 16 teachers participated. Teachers in the study were all women with an average age of 34 years. The study sample consisted of a total of 107 children between the ages of 3 and 7 years. There was a total of 53 children in the intervention group and 54 children in the control group. The average age of children in the intervention group was 5 years, and 55 percent were girls. The average age of the control group was 5 years, and 55 percent were boys. All participating children across study samples were white. No significant differences were found between groups on any baseline characteristics.
The Teacher Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (TSDQ) was used to assess hyperactivity, peer problems, emotional problems, conduct problems, and pro-sociality. The Teacher-Pupil Observation Toll (TPOT) was used to measure negative traits such as behavioral, social, and emotional problems and positive traits such as pro-sociality. To measure fidelity, three tools were used: 1) The Teacher Satisfaction Questionnaire, 2) Incredible Years teacher workshop evaluations, and 3) the teacher workshop checklist.
To measure the effect of the IY–TCM intervention on child and teacher behavior, a hierarchal linear modeling (HLM) analysis was used. No subgroup analysis was conducted.
The estimated cost of delivering the Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management (IY–TCM) program was $2383.60 per teacher, while the average cost per child was $119.18. Further analysis indicated that it would cost $62.72 to affect a one-point change in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) score for a given child. These findings demonstrate that the costs of implementing the IY–TCM program are very modest, when compared with other popular education-based programs (McGilloway et al. 2011).
Two trained leaders, a certified program mentor, and a trained program leader ran the course. The program mentor had completed the leader certification process that involved submission of a recording of a program session and records of teacher responses to each session from two completed programs. Training on delivering leader training to future program leaders was also a requirement of becoming a program mentor. Fidelity in training was addressed through a series of checklists (both leader- and teacher-completed), as identified by the program manual (Webster-Stratton 2003), to ensure evidence-based implementation. See www.incredibleyears.com
for further details on the leader certification process.
Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)
These sources were used in the development of the program profile:Study 1
Baker-Henningham, Helen, Stephen Scott, Kelvyn Jones, and Susan Walker. 2012. “Reducing Child Conduct Problems and Promoting Social Skills in Middle-Income Country: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.” The British Journal of Psychiatry
Hutchings, Judy, Pam Martin-Forbes, David Daley, and Margiad Elen Williams. 2013. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of a Teacher Classroom Management Program on the Classroom Behavior of Children With and Without Behavior Problems.” Journal of School Psychology
These sources were used in the development of the program profile:
McGilloway, Sinead, Lynda Hyland, Grainne Ni Mhaille, Anne Lodge, Donal O’Neill, Paul Kelly, Yvonne Leckey, Tracey Bywater, Catherine Comiskey, and Michael Donnelly. 2011. Positive Classrooms, Positive Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial to Investigate the Effectiveness of the Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management Programme in an Irish Context (Short-Term Outcomes).
Kildare, Ireland: Maynooth University. (This study was reviewed but did not meet Crime Solutions' criteria for inclusion in the overall program rating.)http://atlanticphilanthropies.org/app/uploads/2013/04/teacher-eval.pdf
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn. 2003.The Teacher Classroom Management Programme
(Rev. ed.) Washington, D.C.: Incredible Years Ltd.
Following are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated practices that are related to this program:Universal Teacher Classroom Management Practices
This practice includes classroom management techniques and programs for teaching prosocial behaviors and reducing or preventing inappropriate or aggressive behaviors of students in K–12th grades. This practice is rated Effective in reducing disruptive, inappropriate, and aggressive behavior in students.Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:
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