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Program Profile: Ending Violence

Evidence Rating: No Effects - One study No Effects - One study

Date: This profile was posted on April 27, 2015

Program Summary

A school-based program, taught over 3 school days by attorneys, in which students learn warning signs for dating violence and how the law works in relation to domestic violence. This program is rated No Effects. Results were mixed for all items except help-seeking and knowledge about dating violence and the law, in which the treatment group exhibited positive significant differences compared with the control group.

Program Description

Program Goals/Target Population
Ending Violence is a school-based prevention program designed to teach students about domestic violence, healthy and unhealthy relationships, and legal rights. The program aims to reverse acceptance of violence by emphasizing that intimate partner violence is illegal, and increase knowledge and help-seeking behaviors by providing information and resources.

Key Personnel
The program is taught by attorneys, in order to emphasize the legal dimension of the program and increase students’ comfort levels in speaking with individuals in the legal profession.

Program Components
The program comprises a brief, three-class-session curriculum. During three 1-hour classes, attorneys teach youths about laws that protect victims of domestic violence and punish offenders. The first class is an overview of domestic violence, and discusses topics such as warning signs of potentially abusive relationships, myths and misconceptions related to dating and domestic violence, and types of violence and abuse. The second class focuses on laws related to domestic violence and legal options for victims of domestic violence. The last class focuses on safety planning and restraining orders.

Program Theory
The Ending Violence curriculum is consistent with Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory, which suggests that behavior is learned through direct behavior, modeled behavior, or observed occurrences. The theory suggests that behavior is largely guided by emotional reactions and rewards and punishments that follow a given action. The program aims to reverse students’ acceptance of domestic violence by stressing its illegality, increasing knowledge about domestic violence and related laws, and providing resources for potential victims.

Evaluation Outcomes

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Study 1
Jaycox and colleagues (2006) assessed the impact of the Ending Violence program on help-seeking, victimization, perpetration, abusive/fearful dating experiences, and knowledge about dating violence and the law at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Results were mixed for all items except help-seeking and knowledge about dating violence and the law, in which the treatment group exhibited positive significant differences compared with the control group.

Help-Seeking Measures
While the treatment group showed a significantly higher likelihood of seeking help for violence compared with the control group at posttest, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group on any help-seeking measure (perceptions of helpfulness or likelihood of seeking help for violence) at the 6-month follow up.

Victimization
Results showed that there was not a significant difference between the treatment and control group on total victimization at the 6-month follow-up.

Perpetration
Results showed that there was not a significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of total perpetration at the 6-month follow-up.

Abusive/Fearful Dating Experiences
Results showed that there was not a significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of abusive/fearful dating experiences at the 6-month follow-up.

Knowledge about Dating Violence and the Law
The treatment group showed significantly improved knowledge about dating violence and the law compared with the control group at the 6-month follow-up.
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Evaluation Methodology

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Study 1
Jaycox and colleagues (2006) evaluated the Ending Violence curriculum using a sample of 2,540 9th-grade students from 110 classes in 10 high schools in the Los Angeles United School District. The evaluation took place over a 3-year period (2001–2004). Health classes were randomly assigned to participate in either the experimental group (who received the Ending Violence curriculum during health class) or the control group (who received the standard health curriculum). The schools that participated in more than 1 year of the intervention were only randomized once. Six schools participated in the first cohort, five in the second, and six in the third.

The majority of the total study sample was of Latino descent (92 percent), 75 percent were U.S. born, roughly half were female (52 percent), and the average age was 14.4 years. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the treatment and control groups, except that the control group reported less acceptance of female-on-male aggression and a higher likelihood of seeking help related to violence.

Although parents were notified of the intervention, consent was not required for students to participate in the health class because violence prevention is a part of the school district’s curriculum. However, parental consent and student assent were required for participation in the survey. For intervention classes, pretest surveys were given on Monday, the Ending Violence intervention was administered Tuesday through Thursday, and the posttest surveys were administered on Friday. Control groups followed the same schedule, with the traditional health class curriculum being taught in place of the Ending Violence intervention. Follow-up surveys were administered in class 6 months after the curriculum ended.

All measures were self-report. The authors developed a Likert scale to assess help-seeking and knowledge of dating violence and the law. Modified items from the Women’s Experience Battering Scale were used to evaluate negative dating experiences. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale assessed victimization and perpetration in relationships among those students who dated. The effects of the program on outcomes were tested by examining the differences between the adjusted means for students in the treatment and control groups.
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Cost

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There is no cost information available for this program.
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Implementation Information

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A training guide for schools looking to implement the program can be found at http://www.hazelden.org/OA_HTML/ibeCCtpItmDspRte.jsp?item=195106
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Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)

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These sources were used in the development of the program profile:

Study 1
Jaycox, Lisa H., Daniel McCaffrey, Beth Eiseman, Jessica Aronoff, Gene Shelley, Rebecca Collins, and Grant Marshall. 2006. “Impact of a School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Program among Latino Teens: Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.” Journal of Adolescent Health 36:694–704.
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Additional References

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These sources were used in the development of the program profile:

Bandura, Albert. 1977. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
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Related Practices

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Following are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated practices that are related to this program:

School-Based Interventions to Reduce Dating and Sexual Violence
This practice includes universal-level prevention and intervention programs in schools that aim to reduce or prevent teen dating violence perpetration and victimization. The practice is rated Effective for reducing perpetration of teen dating violence and improving dating violence knowledge and attitudes. The practice is rated No Effects for reducing teen dating violence victimization.

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:
Effective - One Meta-Analysis Crime & Delinquency - Violent offenses
Effective - One Meta-Analysis Attitudes & Beliefs - Teen Dating Violence Knowledge
Effective - One Meta-Analysis Attitudes & Beliefs - Teen Dating Violence Attitudes
No Effects - One Meta-Analysis Victimization - Domestic/intimate partner/family violence
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Program Snapshot

Age: 13 - 15

Gender: Both

Race/Ethnicity: Hispanic

Geography: Urban

Setting (Delivery): School

Program Type: School/Classroom Environment, Children Exposed to Violence, Violence Prevention

Targeted Population: Children Exposed to Violence

Current Program Status: Active

Listed by Other Directories: Child Exposure to Violence Evidence Based Guide, Model Programs Guide