Sells and colleagues (forthcoming) found that participants in the Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL) treatment group had significantly fewer offenses during the 12 months after program completion than the control group (23.5 percent for PLL attendees, compared with 59.0 percent for control group).
Changes in Caregiver Attitudes and Behaviors
Three of the five constructs of the caregiver survey were significantly improved from baseline to postprogram for the PLL group, compared with the control group. The three constructs were parental resilience, social support, and problem solving and communication.
Changes in Adolescent Attitudes and Behaviors
There was no significant improvement on the total youth survey score from baseline to postprogram between the PLL group when compared with the control group, though there was a trend (p=0.063). Two of the 13 constructs, however, did result in significant improvements: high value on helping others and social competencies. The Positive Perception of Self and Others construct neared significance. Changes on the other 10 constructs were not significant.
Sells, Winokur-Early, and Smith (2011) found that participants in the PLL treatment group had fewer offenses during the 12 months after program completion than the control group (16 percent for PLL attendees, compared with 55 percent for the control group). Additionally, juveniles in the treatment group spent a total of 72 days in detention, while juveniles in the control group spent 543 days in detention.
On all but two subscales, the PLL group participants improved significantly more than the control group participants. Moreover, the two subscales on which there were no significant differences between the groups measured concerns (somatic problems and delusional thinking) that are not expected outcomes for the PLL intervention. The most significant difference between the groups was on the aggressive subscale, with the control group scores increasing from baseline to postprogram and the PLL group decreasing during the same time period.
Readiness for Change—Adolescents
Of the four readiness areas measured, only the Action subscale was significantly higher at posttest for the PLL group than for the control group, though it is unclear whether the youths rated this subscale high because they were ready for change or they thought their parents should change.
Readiness for Change—Caregivers
Results for PLL group caregivers suggest that these respondents were transitioning from the precontemplation stage to advanced stages of readiness for change. The group mean of PLL group caregivers increased 9 points in the Ready for Action subscale, compared with the group mean for the control group caregivers which decreased at posttest.
Communication Between Mothers and Youths
Adolescents in the PLL group reported that communication with their mothers was significantly improved, compared with the reports of youths in the control group. Mothers in the PLL group also reported improved communication with their youths, compared with mothers in the control group.