A total of 211 inmates met the criteria and were randomized into one of three treatment conditions:
· Counseling only, which received counseling in prison, with passive referral to treatment upon release (n= 70)
· Counseling + transfer, which received counseling in prison with a transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release (n= 70)
· Counseling + methadone, which received methadone maintenance and counseling in prison, and continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release (n= 71)
There were no statistically significant differences between the three treatment conditions. Study participants were predominately African American, between 35 and 45 years of age, had not completed high school, and had at least 6 previous incarcerations.
Data on the outcome measures was collected at baseline (study entry) and at a 6-month follow-up on 201 study participants. The outcomes of interest were drug abuse, drug abuse treatment, criminal activity, and criminal justice system involvement. Urine drug tests were conducted using the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) for opioids and cocaine. Study participants were administered the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) which assessed the severity of problems in seven areas: alcohol use, drug use, medical, psychiatric, family/social, employment, and legal functioning. Participants were asked about the number of days in the past 180 days that they were in drug abuse treatment, using heroin, using cocaine, involved in other illegal activity, and reincarcerated. In addition to the urine drug tests and the ASI, treatment records of each participant were reviewed.
The study utilized logistic regression for the analyses of dichotomous outcome variables and Poisson regression for the continuous variables. For the analysis of each outcome variable, the predictor variable of primary interest, treatment condition, and the control variables (age, age at first crime, previous cocaine use, and complete prison treatment) were entered simultaneously in the relevant regression analysis for each dependent variable.
Kinlock and colleagues (2009) followed the Gordon and colleagues (2008) study by examining outcome measures at a 12-month follow-up on 204 study participants.
Study participants were 69.6 percent African American, 24 percent Caucasian, and 6.4 percent other ethnicity, with an average age of 40.3 years. There were no statistically significant differences between the three treatment groups, except for one difference: the counseling + methadone group was incarcerated for a longer period then the counseling only group.
In addition to the data collected above, arrest data was obtained from the Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services. Employment data was also analyzed based on data collected from the ASI. Urine drug tests were not obtained for 89 of the 204 participants because of incarceration, hospitalization, being located out of the Baltimore area and interviewed by telephone, or being interviewed more than two months after their due date for the scheduled interview.