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Practice Profile

Universal Teacher Classroom Management Practices

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Effective - One Meta-Analysis Juvenile Problem & At-Risk Behaviors - Aggression

Practice Description

Practice Goals
Universal Teacher Classroom Management Practices are management techniques and programs for use in K–12 classrooms that aim to teach prosocial behaviors in order to reduce or prevent inappropriate or aggressive behaviors of students. These practices are considered universal because they are delivered to all students in a classroom, regardless of student risk factors.
Practice Theory
Classroom management practices typically focus on establishing a positive and supportive classroom environment to facilitate social–emotional learning and appropriate student behavior. Preventive activities, such as setting and teaching class rules and routines, and providing reinforcement for appropriate behavior are important to classroom organization and management because they establish student expectations and serve to increase appropriate student behavior.
Practice Activities/Services Provided
Oliver, Wehby, and Reschly’s (2011) review of universal teacher classroom-management practices identified three examples of programs, each focusing on elements of the classroom environment and techniques for proactive, prosocial student involvement. The three examples are the Classroom Organization and Management Program, classroom management strategies, and multicomponent treatments.
The Classroom Organization and Management Program (COMP) is a professional development program for K–12 teachers that focuses on the following four principles: 1) effective classroom management is proactive, not reactive; 2) management and instruction are connected in effective classrooms; 3) students are active participants; and 4) teachers work together to help each other. COMP training modules focus on the physical classroom organization, planning and teaching classroom rules and routines, managing student work and encouraging student accountability, maintaining and reinforcing good student behavior, planning and organizing learning activities, conducting and maintaining student interest in classroom curricula, and planning for the school year (Classroom Organization and Management Program 2012).
Classroom-management strategies may involve games (i.e. Good Behavior Game) that include assigning students to work in teams, in which each individual is responsible to the rest of his or her team for its success. It is understood that the entire team will be rewarded if they are found to be in compliance with classroom rules. Before the game begins, teachers clearly specify those disruptive behaviors (e.g., verbal and physical disruptions, noncompliance) that, if displayed, will result in a team’s receiving a checkmark on the board. Team members are encouraged to support each other’s efforts at appropriate behavior. By the end of the game, teams that have not exceeded the maximum number of marks are rewarded; teams that exceed this standard receive no rewards (Ialongo et al. 1999).

Multicomponent treatments include teacher training in classroom management, problem solving, and interactive teaching as well as training parents. Teachers are trained on proactive classroom management methods involving the use of frequent encouragement and praise. Children are taught through a social skills curriculum to consider different solutions to social problems. Through an interactive teaching component, children have to master the subject matter before they are able to progress through the program. Finally, a parent training component is included.

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

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Effective - One Meta-Analysis Juvenile Problem & At-Risk Behaviors - Aggression
Oliver, Wehby, and Reschly (2011) synthesized 12 effect sizes of universal teacher classroom management interventions and found that students in the treatment classrooms showed significantly less disruptive, inappropriate, and aggressive behavior (mean ES=.80) than students in the control classrooms (mean ES=.71).
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Meta-Analysis Methodology

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Meta-Analysis Snapshot
 Literature Coverage DatesNumber of StudiesNumber of Study Participants
Meta-Analysis 11988 - 200412269

Meta-Analysis 1
Oliver, Wehby, and Reschly (2011) synthesized the outcomes of 12 studies of universal teacher classroom management interventions on reducing or preventing disruptive, inappropriate, and aggressive behaviors exhibited by students. The authors conducted a literature search for studies reported from 1950 until 2009.
For inclusion, studies were required to evaluate interventions delivered by teachers in the context of the classroom with the expected outcome of reduction in students’ problem behaviors. Studies had to evaluate the interventions using a randomized control group or quasi-experimental design. Studies were not eligible for review if they evaluated schoolwide approaches, pull-out, or small group interventions; if the interventions being evaluated took place outside of the classroom; or if they were delivered in residential facilities or special schools.
The studies included in the analysis were mostly from the United States (92 percent, n=11), were reported in the 1990s (75 percent, n=9), appeared in technical reports (58 percent, n=7), and used randomized study designs (91 percent, n=11). The main focus of the interventions included teacher trainings in Classroom Organization and Management Program [COMP] (58 percent, n=7), classroom management techniques (17 percent, n=2), multicomponent approaches (17 percent, n=2), and classroom-centered curriculum (8 percent, n=1). The student sample predominantly comprised public school students (84 percent, n=10) in grades K to 6 (67 percent, n=8) from mixed neighborhoods in urban, suburban, and rural areas (84 percent, n=10).
Twelve independent effect sizes were included in the analysis. A random effects analysis was used and the standardized mean difference effect size was calculated for the outcome measure. Authors adjusted effect sizes of individual student-level data to classroom-level data using an intraclass correlation.
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There is no cost information available for this practice.
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Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)

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These sources were used in the development of the practice profile:

Meta-Analysis 1
Oliver, Regina M., Joseph H. Wehby, and Daniel J. Reschly. 2011. "Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior." Campbell Systematic Reviews 4:1–55.
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Additional References

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These sources were used in the development of the practice profile:

Classroom Organization and Management Program (COMP). 2012. Accessed 2015.

Ialongo, Nicholas S., Lisa Werthamer, Sheppard G. Kellam, C. Hendricks Brown, Songbai Wang, and Yuhua Lin. 1999. "Proximal Impact of Two First-Grade Preventive Interventions on the Early Risk Behaviors for Later Substance Abuse, Depression, and Antisocial Behavior." American Journal of Community Psychology 27(5):599–641.
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Related Programs

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Following are programs that are related to this practice:

Good Behavior Game Effective - More than one study
A classroom management strategy for children ages 6 to 10 designed to improve aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior and prevent later criminality. The program is rated Effective. The analysis showed males with higher levels of aggression at first grade, but there were increasing and significant effects at sixth grade. Findings also include reduced rates of externalizing behavior and more peer acceptance.

The Incredible Years–Teacher Classroom Management Program Promising - More than one study
This is a preschool-based program designed to strengthen teachers’ classroom-management strategies and develop children’s social and problem-solving skills. The program is rated Promising. Across multiple measures, there was a statistically significant reduction in conduct problems and increase in prosocial behavior among participating children, compared with non-participating children. However, some measures showed no statistically significant effect of the program.
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Practice Snapshot

Age: 6 - 18

Gender: Both

Settings: School

Practice Type: Classroom Curricula, School/Classroom Environment

Unit of Analysis: Other

Regina M. Oliver
Grant Coordinator
Lincoln Public Schools, Special Education
5905 O Street
Lincoln NE 68501
Phone: 615-545-1288