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Program Profile: Coping Power Program

Evidence Rating: Promising - More than one study Promising - More than one study

Date: This profile was posted on May 04, 2012

Program Summary

A cognitive-based intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents during the children’s transition to middle school, which aims to increase competence, study skills, social skills, and self-control as well as to improve parental involvement in their child’s education. The program is rated Promising. There were mixed results on self-reported delinquency, but overall lower substance use, and improved aggressive behavior for the treatment group.

Program Description

Program Goals
The Coping Power Program (CPP) is a cognitive-based intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents during the children’s transition to middle school. The program aims to increase competence, study skills, social skills, and self-control in aggressive children as well as to improve parental involvement in their child’s education.

Target Population/Program Components
The program has a component aimed at the parents of children in intervention classrooms. The child component of CPP lasts 16 months and includes 22 fifth grade sessions and 12 sixth grade sessions. The parent component is administered over 16 sessions, which provides the parents with instruction on parenting skills, including rule setting, appropriate punishment, stress management, and family communication.

The parent component concentrates on parenting and stress-management skills, while the child component involves the use of school-based focus groups and emphasizes anger management and social problem–solving skills. Parents also meet with CPP staff to help them understand and prepare for future adolescence-related and general education issues, and to give them the tools necessary for a smooth transition to middle school.


Program Theory
The Coping Power Program is a multicomponent intervention based heavily on cognitive–behavioral therapy, which emphasizes increasing and exercising parenting skills and the child’s social skills. The child component of CPP draws from anger management programs that concentrate on decision-making, attributions, and peer pressure.

Evaluation Outcomes

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The Coping Power Program (CPP) was initially developed in the United States; the studies reporting outcome effects after one year (studies 1 and 2) both showed promising, although sometimes inconsistent, effects particularly in study 2. However, an evaluation 5 years after the beginning of the intervention in the Netherlands (study 3) showed no effects, although the study did include a smaller sample size. While the preponderance of evidence suggests promising outcomes, there were some inconsistent findings, which should be considered prior to implementation.

Study 1
Delinquency

Lochman and Wells (2003) found that the CPP groups had significantly lower scores of self-reported delinquency when compared with the control condition.

Substance Use
Overall the treatment group had significantly lower self-reported substance use than the control group. In particular the authors note that older and moderate-risk children in the treatment group report significantly lower substance use than the control group. However, there was no significant difference between younger high-risk treatment children and the control group.

School Behavior
The treatment group significantly improved their aggressive behavior in school scores as reported by the teacher compared with the control group. This result was seen across treatment conditions.

Study 2
Delinquency

Lochman and Wells (2004) found that there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups on measures of overt delinquency (minor assault, felony assault, robbery). However, the experimental group had significant lower covert delinquency (minor theft, felony theft, fraud, destruction of property) than the control group.

Substance Use
The boys in the experimental group had significantly lower substance use scores than the control group on the parent measure scale. Using the child self-report measure, however, there were no significant differences.

School Behavior
The experimental group had significantly better teacher ratings of aggressive behavior than the control group.


Study 3
Delinquency

Zonnevylle–Bender and colleagues (2007) found that there were no significant differences between treatment and control groups on the delinquency scale.

Marijuana Use
The treatment group had significantly lower lifetime use of marijuana, compared with the control group, with 13 percent of the treatment group and 35 percent of the control group reporting having lifetime marijuana use. However, there were no significant differences between groups on usage within the last month.

Alcohol Use
There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in lifetime or past-month alcohol use.

Cigarette Use
The treatment group had significantly lower use of cigarettes in the last month, compared with the control group, with 17 percent of the treatment and 42 percent of the control group reporting cigarette smoking in the last month. There were, however, no significant differences on lifetime use of cigarettes.
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Evaluation Methodology

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Study 1
The Lochman and Wells 2003 study evaluated the effectiveness of the Coping Power Program (CPP) among aggressive children identified in the fourth grade, with the intervention taking place in the fifth and sixth grades. This study examined results at the 1-year follow-up looking in particular at delinquency, substance use, and school behavior outcomes. After the researchers identified moderate- to high-risk aggressive children and received parental consent, 245 children were randomized into intervention and control conditions. The children were spread out through 60 fifth grade classrooms in 17 elementary schools. There were four randomized groups with 59 subjects in the Coping Power–only condition, 61 in the Coping Power and classroom intervention condition, 62 in the classroom-only condition, and 63 subjects in the control condition. There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of aggressive behavior, demographic factors, or teacher-assessed cognitive functioning. The sample had a 2-to-1 boy-to-girl ratio and was predominantly African American (about 75 percent) and white. The classroom intervention, known as Coping With the Middle School Transitions, includes a teacher component in which they meet with Coping Power staff members for five 2-hour sessions. These sessions were used to discuss problem solving around the issue of aggression and to present the CPP format.

The delinquency outcomes were assessed with child self-report surveys based on questions from the National Youth Survey. The substance abuse outcomes were also measured with child self-report, while aggressive behavior in a school setting was measured using the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation—Revised. Results collected at the 1-year follow-up were tested with analysis of variance (aka ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (or ANCOVA), using generalized linear models.


Study 2
Lochman and Wells (2004) reported the results of their 15-month evaluation of the CPP. In winter 1997, baseline assessment took place of fourth and fifth grade boys with treatment delivered in the spring and during the following academic year. The final sample had two experimental conditions: a CPP with parent intervention (n=60) and CPP for children only (n=60). There were 63 children in the control group. In addition to these three groups of aggressive children, a normative sample of 63 children was also used. The child component consisted of 8 sessions in the first year and 25 in the second year, with each session lasting between 40 and 60 minutes. The parent component consisted of 16 group sessions over the intervention period. There were no significant differences among the three at-risk groups. The total sample was made up of 55 percent fourth graders and 45 percent fifth graders and was 61 percent African American and 28 percent white.

Child measures were taken 1 year after the intervention, while parent measures were taken 6 months postintervention. The National Youth Survey (NYS) provided outcome measures for delinquency, which were separated into overt (minor assault, felony assault, robbery) and covert (minor theft, felony theft, fraud, destruction of property). The NYS also provided the outcomes for the child self-report of substance use. Additionally a parent report of the child’s substance use was used, as well as a teacher assessment of the child’s behavioral improvement. Results were tested with either ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, or multiple analysis of covariance (MANOVAs), using the generalized linear model.


Study 3
The Zonnevylle–Bender and colleagues (2007) study examined the effects of the CPP program on children with disruptive behavior disorder in the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Children were randomized to the treatment and care as usual control group. Children were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics over a period of 3 years. To be eligible for inclusion in the study, they had to be between 8 and 13 years old. They additionally had to be living within a family structure, meet an IQ threshold, and have been diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder. Final sample sizes for participants in the study were 30 in the treatment group and 31 in the control group. There were no significant baseline differences between groups. All subjects were white; 87 percent of the treatment group and 90 percent of the control group were male. At the beginning of the study, the average age of the treatment group was 9.9 years; it was 10.3 years for the control group. The CPP treatment never lasted more than 9 months; it included 23 weekly sessions with children and 25 parent sessions.

Measures were taken 5 years after treatment began. Substance use was assessed using a self-report instrument adapted from the California Student Survey, while delinquency was assessed using the National Youth Survey questionnaire. The authors used one-factor ANOVAs to test results from delinquency self-report, while the substance use measures were tested with Pearson’s chi-squared analyses.
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Cost

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There is no cost information available for this program.
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Implementation Information

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The Coping Power Program Web site notes that active support is required from school administrators and teachers for successful replication. Elementary and middle schools wishing to adopt the program should ensure that they have at least one full-time, master’s-level counselor or other staff with related functions and similar qualifications. Additionally, Child Component group sessions take place during school, last 50 minutes and usually include five children. For more information, visit the Coping Power Program Web site at http://www.copingpower.com/.  
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Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)

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These sources were used in the development of the program profile:

Study 1
Lochman, John E., and Karen C. Wells. 2003. “Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of Classroom Intervention With Aggressive Children: Outcomes at a 1-Year Follow-Up.” Behavior Therapy 34:439–515.

Study 2
Lochman, John E., and Karen C. Wells. 2004. “The Coping Power Program for Preadolescent Aggressive Boys and Their Parents: Outcome Effects at the 1-Year Follow-Up.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72(4):571–78.

Study 3
Zonnevylle–Bender, Marjo J.S., Walter Matthys, Nicolle M.H. van de Wiel, and John E. Lochman. 2007. “Prevention Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46(1):33–39.
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Additional References

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These sources were used in the development of the program profile:

Boxmeyer, Caroline Lewczyk, John E. Lochman, Nicole Powell, Anna Yaros, and Mary Wojnaroski. 2007. “A Case Study of the Coping Power Program for Angry and Aggressive Youth.” Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 37:167–74.

Cabiya, José J., Lymaries Padilla–Cotto, Karelyn González, Jovette Sanchez–Cestero, Alfonso Martínez–Taboas, and Sean Sayers. 2008. “Effectiveness of a Cognitive–Behavioral Intervention for Puerto Rican Children.” Interamerican Journal of Psychology 42(2):195–202.

Ellis, Mesha L., Michael A. Lindsey, Edward D. Barker, Caroline L. Boxmeyer, and John E. Lochman. 2013. “Predictors of Engagement in a School-Based Family Preventive Intervention for Youth Experiencing Behavioral Difficulties.” Prevention Science 14:457–67.


Lochman, John E., Caroline Lewczyk Boxmeyer, Nicolle Powell, Lixin Qu, Karen C. Wells, and Michael Windle. 2009. “Dissemination of the Coping Power Program: Importance of Intensity of Counselor Training.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 77(3):397–409.

Lochman, John E., Nicole Powell, Caroline Lewczyk Boxmeyer, Lixin Qu, Karen C. Wells, and Michael Windle. 2009. “Implementation of a School-Based Prevention Program: Effects of Counselor and School Characteristics.” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 40(5):476–82.

Lochman, John E., and Karen C. Wells. 2002. “The Coping Power Program at the Middle-School Transition: Universal and Indicated Prevention Effects.” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 16(4S):S40–54.

Lochman, John E., Karen C. Wells, Lixin Qu, and Lei Chen. 2013. “Three Year Follow-up of Coping Power Intervention Effects: Evidence of Neighborhood Moderation?” Prevention Science 14:364–76.


van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H., Walter Matthys, Peggy T. Cohen–Kettenis, and Herman van Engeland. 2003. “Application of the Utrecht Coping Power Program and Care as Usual to Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Outpatient Clinics: A Comparative Study of Cost and Course of Treatment.” Behavior Therapy 34:421–36.

van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H., Walter Matthys, Peggy T. Cohen–Kettenis, Gerald H. Maassen, John E. Lochman, and Herman van Engeland. 2007. “The Effectiveness of an Experimental Treatment When Compared to Care as Usual Depends on the Type of Care as Usual.” Behavior Modification 31(3):298–312.
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Program Snapshot

Age: 8 - 13

Gender: Both

Race/Ethnicity: Black, White

Geography: Suburban, Urban

Setting (Delivery): School

Program Type: Classroom Curricula, Cognitive Behavioral Treatment, Parent Training, Alcohol and Drug Prevention

Targeted Population: Families

Current Program Status: Active

Listed by Other Directories: Model Programs Guide, What Works Clearinghouse

Program Developer:
John E. Lochman
Professor and Doddrige Saxon Chair of Clinical Psychology
University of Alabama
Department of Psychology, Box 870348
Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0348
Phone: 205.348.7678
Fax: 205.348.8648
Website
Email

Program Director:
John E. Lochman
Professor and Doddrige Saxon Chair of Clinical Psychology
University of Alabama
Department of Psychology, Box 870348
Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0348
Phone: 205.348.7678
Fax: 205.348.8648
Website
Email

Researcher:
Nicole Powell
Research Scientist
The University of Alabama
Center for Prevention of Youth Behavior Problems, Box 870348
Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0348
Phone: 205-348-3535
Fax: 205-348-3526
Website
Email